Yunqi the dialect of the Eskimo-Aleutian language family. As

Yunqi Wang


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Weekly Summary

Before Christopher Columbus’ ships landed in the Bahamas thousands of years ago, different groups of people discovered the United States: Native American nomadic ancestors from Asia to Asia over 12,000 years ago, Alaska’s “land bridge.” In fact, adventurers in Europe By the 15th century, scholars estimated that more than 50 million people have lived in the Americas. Ten million of them live in the United States. Over time, these immigrants and their descendants moved south and eastward, following them. To track these different groups, anthropologists and geographers classify them as “cultural areas” or as rough groups of contiguous nations with similar habitats and characteristics. Most scholars divide North America (excluding Mexico) into 10 separate cultural regions such as Arctic, Sub-Arctic, Northeast, Southeast, Plain, Southwest, Great Basin, California, Northwest Coast and Plateau.

In Alaska, Canada and Greenland, near the Arctic Circle, the Arctic Cultural District is a cold, flat, tree-less area (actually a frozen desert), home to Inuit and Aleutic peoples. Both groups speak and continue to speak, from what scholars call the dialect of the Eskimo-Aleutian language family. As this is a desolate landscape, the Arctic population is relatively small and scattered. Some of them, especially the Inuit in the north of the region, are nomads, crossing the tundra with seals, polar bears and other games. In the southern region of the region, the Aleman’s live in small fishing villages on the shore

 Around 2561 out of 5000, the cultural region of the Northwest Coast from the province of British Columbia to the northern Pacific coast of Northern California has a mild climate and rich natural resources. In particular, the sea and the rivers in the area provide almost everything people need – especially salmon, and a wide variety of whales, sea otters, seals and fish and shellfish. As a result, unlike many other hunters, they had to follow herd in order to make a living, and Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest were safe enough to build a permanent village of hundreds of people in each village. These villages operate on a strictly hierarchical social structure, more complex than anywhere else in Mexico and Central America. A person’s status depends on his close relationship with the village chief and his possessions (blankets, shells) (such goods play an important role in dress up, an elaborate work designed to identify these classifications Gift giving ceremony.)

 Last but not least, I think The Highlands Cultural District is nestled in the Columbia and Fraser Rivers, at the confluence of the Amazon, Plains, Great Basin, California and the northwest coast (now Idaho, Montana, eastern Oregon and Washington State). Most of its people live in small villages along rivers and banks, fishing for salmon and trout, hunting and harvesting wild berries, roots and nuts. In the southern plateau, the vast majority of languages come from Peruvian (Klamath, Klickitat, Modoc, Nez Perce, Walla Walla and Yakima or Yakama). Salisan dialects are spoken north of the Columbia River, mostly (Skitswish (Coeur d’Alene), Salish (Flathead), Spokane and Columbia). In the eighteenth century, other natives brought horses to the plateau. The inhabitants of the region rapidly incorporated animals into their economy, expanding their hunting radius and serving as traders and ambassadors between the Northwest and the Plains. In 1805, explorers of Lewis and Clarke traveled across the region, attracting more and more white settlers that had their disease spread. By the end of the nineteenth century, most of the remaining plateau Indians had been cleared from their lands and relocated under the government’s reservations.

For thousands of years, Inuit life has no historical record. This changed with their first contact with the Europeans. The Vikings under Eric Red met the Inuit in Greenland in 984. About six hundred years later, British explorer Martin Frobisher contacted the Inuit in the central part of Canada. In 1741, the Russian explorer Vitus Bering met the Inuit in Alaska. It is estimated that about 40,000 Inuit people were living in Alaska at that time, and half of them lived in the north, both inland and in the remote northwest. The Inuit, Aleut and Native Americans living below the Arctic Circle are most affected by this early engagement by Russian fur traders. However, the northern Inuit population was less affected by the second European invasion of the expanded whale trade.

The Russian expedition in the south led to the near destruction of Aleutian culture. This is the result of white transmission of disease and total murder. The first white explorers to reach Arctic Alaska were English Sir John Franklin and Captain F. W. Beechey. Both parties noticed widespread trade between Inuit and Indians. Other early explorers, including Alexander Sakharov, also noted the intricacies of the transaction system, the movement of goods from Siberia to Barrow and then back through a regular network of trade fairs. However, all this changed as European whalers arrived by the mid-nineteenth century. These whalers were former hunters of the Pacific sperm whales who arrived in the Arctic as the whales migrated to the Beaufort Sea in the summer. Unlike the Inuit, which uses all parts of the whale for its livelihood, the whaling fleet from New England and California focuses primarily on whale beards, the long, flexible keratin band as a filtration system for whale whales. This material is used to make buttons and corsage hooks, and the price is high. A bowhead can generate many pounds, worth $ 8,000, which is a considerable amount of money.

In 1867, the United States bought Alaska and whaling operations increased. The advent of steam-powered vessels has further increased the number of ships in the area. Shortly thereafter, ships whaling from the South became a common feature in Arctic waters. Their immediate effect is the destruction of the intricacies of trade networks that have been built up over centuries. The Inuit traders no longer need it as the whalers pick up the goods. The second effect is the introduction of new illnesses and alcohol due to the contact between whalers and the Inuit. This, combined with the obvious consequences of the whaling industry, reduces the population of the whales and makes Inuit hard to survive. The reliance on wages left Inuit out of hunting and trading for thousands of years as they logged in as deck hands or guides. Country life has become morale-low due to whiskey trading. Small settlements disappeared altogether; others are greatly affected by the disease caused by the whalers. Hope point in a year lost 12% of the population. In 1900, 200 Inuit died due to the flu epidemic in the whalers’ area. In 1902, another 100 people died of measles.



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