While isolated from plants from the Amaryllidaceae family such

While no cure or totally effective medication has yet been
created, there are a number of memory loss medications with FDA approval and on
the market at this time. These medications can only help manage the symptoms
and, in some cases, slow down the rate of progression of the disease.
(alzheimers.ie, n.d.)64However, these drugs can be unpopular because
of their unpleasant side effects which can be particularly harsh on older
people with Alheimer’s disease. (National institute of aging, 2017)65

Current medications on the market in the United States of America:

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

Generic name

Brand name

Approved for

Donepezil

Aricept

All stages

Galantamine

Razadyne

Mild to moderate

Revastigmine

Exelon

Mild to moderate

Memantine

Namenda

Moderate to severe

Donepezil + Memantine

Namzaric

Moderate to severe

(alz.org, n.d.)66

 

These available treatments are only
the small percentage that make it past the clinical trial. Hundreds of
different compounds are produced in labs with the hope of finally finding the
cure to this disease however, there has been no such luck yet. Below are a few
of the experimental drugs that are being tested and examined today:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Donepezil:
Used to treat the
symptoms of Alzheimer’s by improving memory of patients, However, does not
slowdown or stop the disease in any way.

 

 

Galantamine:
This drug is used to
treat Alzheimer’s and a variety of other central nervous system conditions.
This drug is isolated from plants from the Amaryllidaceae
family such as the Caucasian snowdrop, the daffodil and the red spider
lily.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revastigmine:
Used f the treatment
of mild to moderate due to Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. The
drug can be administered via transdermal patch which can lessen the intensity
of the side effects. the latter form reduces the prevalence of side effects.

 

 

 

 

Memantine:
Memantine is used to treat moderate
to severe Alzheimer’s disease. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. This drug has also been used to treat patients with
anxiety disorders, ADHD, OCD and various other neurological disorders.

Fig.54.)
Chemical formula:  C12H21N
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The first three drugs on this list,
Donepezil, Galantamine and Revastigmine are all a form of drug which are called
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. These are drugs that
stop or slow down enzymes from breaking down acetylcholine when it is
transported between two cells. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter which helps
to transport signals across the nerves synapses to anther nerve. This means
that the low levels of acetylcholine present in alzheimers patients brains,
diminishes at a slower rate which results in higher concentrations of
acetylcholine which leads to increased signalling between nerve cells, which in
turn, may temporarily improve or stabilise the symptoms of dementia. Some
people who take cholinesterase inhibitors experience side-effects. Side-effects
from these drugs are most common when someone first administers them but,
fortunately, they often settle down with time. The most likely side effects are
diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, lowered blood pressure, insomnia,
fatigue and loss of appetite. Other reported side effects include falls and
dizziness. If the dose is increased gradually the likelihood of side effects is
lower. When prescribing these drugs, the doctor must ensure they are aware of
the patient’s medical history because they can be harmful in people with a
history of peptic ulcers, asthma, liver or kidney disease, or a very slow heart
rate. (dementia australia, 2006)67

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The fourth drug on the list,
Memantine, is a different type of drug which acts on the glutamatergic
system by blocking NMDA receptors.
An increased level of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)
receptor hypofunction within the brain is associated with the symptoms of
Alzheimer’s such as psychosis and memory loss. As the brain ages, the NMDA
receptors become progressively slower, contributing to decreases in new memory formation
and learning performance. In order to restrict this progressive
deterioration of the NMDA receptors, Memantine works by regulating the activity
of glutamate which is a chemical involved in the processing of new information
and the storage of new memory. Glutamate plays an essential role in learning
and memory by triggering NMDA receptors to let a controlled amount of calcium
into a nerve cell. The calcium helps create the right chemical conditions that
are required for the storage of information. Excess glutamate, however,
overstimulates NMDA receptors so that they allow too much calcium into the
nerve cells. That leads to disruption and death of cells. Memantine protects
cells against excess glutamate by partially blocking MNDA receptors.
(Alzheimer’s asociation, n.d.)68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The last drug on the list is a combination of Donepezil and
Memantine which is commercially called Namzaric. This is subscribed in moderate
to severe cases of Alzheimer’s but can have serious side effects such as slower
heartbeat, nausea , increased production of stomach acid which can increase
risk of bleeding and stomach ulcers, and in some cases, seizures.
People taking Namzaric may see an improvement in cognition and brain function
overall, and a temporary delay in the worsening of symptoms. Unfortunately, as
with all Alzheimer’s medications on the market today, there is no evidence of
this drug stopping or curing the degenerative disease in any way. (Alzheimer’s
asociation, n.d.)69

Bibliography

64alz.org, n.d. Medications for memory loss. Online
Available at: https://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_standard_prescriptions.asp
Accessed 25 January 2018

65Alzheimer’s asociation, n.d. FDA approved treatments of Alzheimer’s. Online

Available at: https://www.alz.org/dementia/downloads/topicsheet_treatments.pdf
Accessed 27 January 2018

66alzheimers.ie, n.d. Treating dementia. Online
Available at: https://www.alzheimer.ie/Living-with-dementia/I-have-Dementia/Treatments.aspx
Accessed 26 January 2018

67dementia australia, 2006. Drug treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. Online
Available at: https://www.dementia.org.au/files/helpsheets/Helpsheet-DementiaQandA01-CholinesteraseInhibitors_english.pdf
Accessed 27 January 2018

68National institute of aging, 2017. How is alzheimer’s disease treated. Online

Available at: https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/how-alzheimers-disease-treated
Accessed 28 January 2018

Fig.50) Managing alzheimers disease. Retrieved from https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/managing-alzheimers-disease
accessed on 28/1/18
Accessed 25 January 2018

Fig.51) What is Donepezil. Retrieved from http://donepezil.com/ accessed on 26/1/18

 Fig.52) Biogenic
stimulants. Retrieved from https://www.nivalin.com/galantamine-introduction.php
accessed on 27/1/18

Fig.53) Revastigmine tartrate. Retrieved from https://www.medchemexpress.com/rivastigmine-tartrate.html
accessed on 28/1/18

Fig.53) Human health effects. Retrieved from https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@[email protected]+7327
accessed 9on 27/1/18

Fig.54) What are
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Retrieved from https://peaknootropics.com/using-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-nootropics/ accessed on 26/1/18
Fig.55) Treatment of Alzheimer’s. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/WIWomensHealth/franczak-presentation

x

Hi!
I'm Joan!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out