When the conception of the states’ rights that tended

Affirmative Action was White, by Ira Katznelson was published in 2005. The author essentially recasts our understanding
of the twentieth century of America’s history. He also demonstrates the past
events between 1930 and 1940 of the New Deal and Fair Deal. The author provides
a powerful argument for reparations and points out very precise ways that
victims of these tactics can be compensated. It will change your understanding
of the United States History and how some things have not changed from time to

This book has a clear case for race-based affirmative action and gives great
details of how African Americans were left out on important benefits of the New
and Fair Deal, including benefits of GI Bill, minimum wage protection, and
social security. This book reinforced the conception of
the states’ rights that tended to be very racist. Ira was repetitive about showing over and over on how
each time a program was proposed to benefit the United States, it was most
often kept away from the African Americans.

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The New Deal was crafted with prejudiced intent.
It is the progressive series of legislation ever since Franklin D. Roosevelt signed
it. This was supposed to improve the
economy after the Depression which in its own way it did work out. It was
responsible for the people of modern middle class and its social foundation upon,
which affected several generations wealth founded in the United States. The GI
Bill and Social Security are the most
well-known New Deal programs. The exception
of farmers and household workers that were disbar from the minimum wage and social
security until the 1950s, which accounted for seventy- five percent of African
Americans in the south and a majority in the country. The African Americans have had no access
to education, small business loans, or housing
subsidized by the GI Bill after World War Two. This was because they
were discouraged from being enrolled in the military and localities were authorized
to determine the requirements of the loans. This was not an accident. Ira
Katznelson handily shows how from the design of the bills, to guide through Congress by the powerful
association of Democrats from the
southern, to each piece of legislation’s disperse process
where putting a decision or plan into effect, which allowed states and cities
to do business as usual, that is, Jim Crow. This conceded racial
inequality not just to endure, but caused it to become poorly worse after the
1930s and 1940s. It was shocking and
upsetting to see the African American veterans
and soldiers that have been kept from full admission to those benefits from the
GI Bill. While others are able to benefit from this, African Americans are just
left out in the dust like they had nothing apart. Reading about the GI Bill, I
thought provoked and definitely expand your thinking about how privileged white
Americans have been in the United States. Even though it was a big team effort,
the white Americans take all the credit and glory.

The Affirmative action should be
associated with historical causes.
Affirmative action as it is today only
seeks to right individual or private acts of bias judgments, but not ones that our local and national government were
directly involved in.

Ira Katznelson has powerful facts of history that have not been covered loud
enough and he explains in his book. He proposes one time grants, tax credits, or loan subtotal where it can
be proved that one stands in a direct line of people left out or held up in
collecting the benefits of new deal programs. This would not be perpetual or
typical of how the government performance but for it to be treated for a time
when the government did act unjustly. The author does not go into much more
detail about remedies. The bottom line of his argument states that citizens of
America need to understand history well enough to learn the facts that have
been given out in order to change towards the future and make a difference. This era of history is valuable
to understand as it shows that public policy and time has been the most
decisive instrument in segregating types of American races. If we give social capital
to just only one type of race such as White Americans from different continents
and not share the same status in order to become fair with other minorities
such as African Americans, we cannot be surprised by the different outcomes
over the years with regarding the criminal justice system, poverty, housing, and
schools. Withholding people independently responsible for their actions is at best
insincere. I say this because choices are
predicated upon the resources made available to the community. As much as there
was the blatant amount of racism back
then, there is still a decent amount that is still carried on in today’s
society. With much separation between races, It makes it hard for everyone to
come together and neutralize the big threats of today such as world hunger in
some countries. Going back and forth fighting all the time continuously is not
the answer. There is one remedy of a solution for the aforesaid historical memory loss of education. We all have to better
understand our history as a country to make any improvements in racial inequality.