What is your plan for your concept to mature

What is your plan for your concept to
mature into a realizable prototype?



If qualified for the third level of
screening what Idea/Concept/Solution you are proposing?

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If qualified for the second level of
screening what Idea/Concept/Solution you are proposing?







Flight time or working time is not high but with the recent improvement
in technology in upcoming time, the efficiency can be increased more.

The wingspan and area should be reduced to attain more manoeuvrability
and less prone to attack

The electric propulsion noise needs to be reduced furthermore to obtain
more stealth.

Still, the concept needs to be improved to the maximum utilization for
the product development.


Easy operation and reliable system for its type.

Direct connection with the ground operator and supervision and relay to
manual mode.

Low life cycle cost and higher durability due to use of FRP’s and high-density foam with carbon fibre structure.

Highly stable and easy manoeuvrability on water and lift due to hovering
capability of the vehicle.

Fully automated landing and take-off with surveillance and ground target
following capabilities.

Portable system and easily assemble capability helps in quick reaction.

Electrical propulsion used creates minimal noise signature than fuel
counterpart and less audio detection probability helps in maintaining a low


The unmanned vehicle has various advantages and

The vehicle is hovercraft with further development
for an attached wing and retractable capabilities make a solution for the
problem statement. The vehicle guarantees efficient mobility on land, water, air
and even on ice. The onboard system makes it’s highly autonomous and helps its
carry out the mission effectively.

and Disadvantages








Thus the above are the various basic components of
the system and the basic framework of required equipment for the conceptual

The 270kv motor with the propeller provides enough
thrust and torque to produce that thrust to hover a weight of 2.5 to 3 kgs
easily and also the flying wing with two thrust propeller are able to generate
lift for flying.

It needs to control the stability and height
clearance while hovering and also needs to control the inputs and the outputs
as its role are of high importance so high processing and powerful flight
controller or onboard computers such as Ardu-pilot, Pixhawk or Raspberry pie
can be used.

So it controls the shutting of the main or hovering
motor while in the air also closing the duct when flying.it needs to control
the speed for the 2 thrust motors like in water and land the speed are low but
in the air the speed needs to be increased for climbing, cruising and other

The flight controller or the onboard computers are
coded in Python or C language to determine the usage of the motor, controlling
their speed and even navigating .the flight controller consist of various
sensors and a microprocessing unit which sense the input given to the processor
by the sensor and react by the code and the algorithm.


5.      Mechanical control systems

4.      Communication system

3.      Navigation and mapping system

2.      Power and Power distribution system

1.      Flight and hovercraft controlling system

for the vehicle include

12.  Power distribution circuit

11.  Telemetry 

10.  Gps/satellite communication

9.      Power supply to the payload containing surveillance

8.      Control linkages.

7.      Structure (including outer frp’s-firber reinforced
plastics with carbon rods as structure member and high-density foam)

6.      Batteries (lithium polymer)

5.      6 servo motor, 2 for the ducted fan,1 for closing the
duct of hovering motor while flying in the air ,2 for retracting and the
opening of the wing and 2 for Ailerons.

4.      Two brushless motors for thrust to hovering on land and
water, also same motor with increased speed for operating in air.

3.      16*9 or 17*9 propeller for hovering

2.      One 270 kV brushless outrunner motor for hovering

1.      Onboard controller

vehicle has a near fully autonomous working due to its onboard sensors and
controllers.The vehicle has the following components to support the system,

Systems and Components






































Here the centre chord or also root chord of the flying wing is
1.5 m and the tip chord is 67 cm and span of 3.5m

The area of the body is found in order to determine the AR
(Aspect Ratio) and further the wetted Aspect ratio which will be important in
determining the L/D ratio.

              where V- velocity, C –fuel
consumption rate, L/D is lift to drag ratio and natural log        of weight for the segment.

                   R = (V/C) * (L/D) * ln (Wi
/ Wi-1)

The range is given by Breguet Range equation to find the
range and power, its calculated in different segments such as during climb,
cruise, loiter, decent, etc.

          Wo=2.5 to 3 kg’s depending
on material used.

          Also We/Wo= 0.3
to 0.7

                                     W0 -total
takeoff weight

                                     Wf -fuel

                         Where We -empty

            Wo=Wcrew+Wpayload   /  (1-(Wf/Wo)
– (We/Wo)



The design take-off weight is to be calculated by,

Now for flying
of the vehicle,


control surfaces are present in order to make the turns and path change while
travelling on ground and water.The moments are known about the CG(Center of
gravity)and thus their size is known.

Then the
thrust motor KV are determined and their speed is known, here the KV of the
motor is high in the range of 1000KV and 1300KV providing high speed and low

Thus the
motor kV can be between 320 to 270 KV for central hovering of the vehicle with
the propeller with 16*8 or 16*9 being the best fit.Here low KV motor with high
torque and less speed are used.

So now
total mass calculation for the weight for Payload and self-weight estimated to
be between 2.5 to 3 kgs.Now based the above parameter such as pressure and
power are known based on which the KV motor is selected and efficient propeller
in order to make it hover.

where hc
–clearance height, lcu -cushion perimeter,  Dc -discharge coefficient, AC
– the area of cushion, d-density.

= hc * lcu * Dc (W / AC) *

for the Air cushion

P can
be  between 1.2 to 3.3kPa

P=f/A                     where P- Pressure under the
skirt, f – weight, A-area


It’s a
basic hovercraft capable of flying with the same thrust engines for its mobility
over land, water and air.The bottom of the vehicle is a skirt of rubber made to
form the cushion which helps in hovering the vehicle.The air pressure
calculation and maximum calculation gives the conceptual design.



flowchart of the role and the working aspects of the system.



The objectives are assigned and the enemy trajectory
is estimated and a command is given where an individual or ground force plans
and executes the mission with the input given from handheld screen to the
vehicle to meet the goal. Also, the communication is between the controller who
gives the input and the vehicle through the satellite-based system and the data
and function performed can be supervised and stored in a database for further
improving the autonomous behaviour of the vehicle.

It’s an unmanned ground vehicle for the battlespace
knowledge where based on predictive battlespace and referring it a mission
profile is planned and the data is limited to particular space and functions
where it will operate. This limitation enables the utilization of the vehicle
either on land, water and air.


The above is the sketch of the mission profile for
the unmanned system.

It’s used in the mission where simultaneously
surveillance is to be done on land, water and air thus demanding a highly
efficient and all mode transfer with minimum failure and high autonomous role.
The mission profile for the system can be determined as,

Its portable device which can be carried by the
ground troops with fast deployment within minutes. Its Nose mount helps in
real-time imaging and mapping helps with obstacle-free maximum coverage of the
entire space while in the land, water or air with high-resolution day and night

that, it includes an onboard flight controller, lithium polymer batteries,
navigation system, telemetry system, servo motors and electric propeller
engines as the propulsion system. It enables the ground forces to get the
real-time intelligence and can also serve for reconnaissance.

system can carry a payload of 1.5 kg’s which includes all real-time imaging and
surveillance systems that includes EO (electro-optical) and Infrared solutions
for surveillance.

The present work elucidates the
significance of autonomous system which aims at developing an unmanned system
capable of moving on land, water and air. The vehicle is an air-cushioned
unmanned ground vehicle capable of autonomously with the help of onboard computers and sensors perform the
mission profile with NAVIC/GPS satellite-based navigation.


Part B