Very dehydrogenation, and hydrolysis reactions. The first reaction will

Very low density lipoproteins are
not as dense as chylomicrons. These lipoproteins are based on protein
components not as much lipids. Both vldl and ldl are known as bad cholesterols
since their serum concentration levels are responsible for different heart and
artery diseases like strokes. HDL are about half and half when it comes to the
lipid and protein ratio. They are good cholesterols since they to lower the
rate of artery diseases.  

High?density lipoproteins (HDLs) will
contain a different apolipoprotein form, Apolipoprotein A which is different
than those of low density. These proteins are just about half lipid and half
protein by weight. Phospholipids and cholesterol esters are the most important
lipid components. HDL can be sometimes referred to as “good cholesterol”
because a higher ratio of HDL to LDL corresponds to a lower rate of coronary
artery disease.

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Triacylglycerols in chylomicrons and will circulate
through the blood. These triacylglycerols are used as substrates for cellular
lipases, which will then hydrolyze them to make fatty acids in several
different steps. Many carrier proteins transport the lipids into the cell using
many different pathways. There are carriers that can be used for varying chain?length

Energy production from triacylglycerols begins
with their hydrolysis into free fatty acids. When analyzing this fat?storing tissue,
we can see that a cellular lipase will be carrying out the hydrolysis. Next the
fatty acid will be taken up through the bloodstream and the liver. The liver is
responsible for glycerol absorption and the fatty acids by the blood. This can be
sent to the glycolytic pathway by glycerol kinase and glycerol three phosphate dehydrogenase.
This enzyme can be used as energy via glucose or the TCA cycle via intermediates.

Fatty acids are broken down through the
?? oxidation pathway that
releases two?carbon units. For example, palmitic acid has 16 carbons. Its
initial oxidation produces eight acetyl?Coenzyme A (CoA) molecules, eight
reduced FAD molecules, and eight NADH molecules. The fatty acid is first activated at the outer
mitochondrial surface by conjugating it with CoA, then transported through the inner
mitochondrial membrane to the matrix, and then, for each 2?carbon unit, broken
down by successive dehydrogenation,
water addition, dehydrogenation, and hydrolysis reactions. The first reaction will involve the
catalization by the  isoforms of
acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AD) on the inner-mitochondrial membrane. This reaction
will result in trans double bond, different from naturally occurring
unsaturated fatty acids. Analogous to succinate dehydrogenase reaction in the
citric acid cycle; the electrons from bound FAD transferred directly to the
electron- transport chain via electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF) which is catalyzed by
two isoforms of enoyl-CoA hydratase. Next, water adds across the double bond yielding
alcohol, analogous to fumarase reaction in the citric acid cycle
with the same stereospecificity. Following this reaction, the one is  catalyzed by b-hydroxyacyl-CoA
dehydrogenase which  uses NAD cofactor
as the hydride acceptor. In this reaction, only L-isomers of hydroxyacyl CoA
act as substrates which is analogous to malate dehydrogenase reaction in
the citric acid cycle. The next reaction is catalyzed by acyl-CoA acetyltransferase
(thiolase) via covalent mechanism: The carbonyl carbon in b-ketoacyl-CoA
is electrophilic, active site thiolate acts as nucleophile and releases
acetyl-CoA, and the terminal sulfur in CoA-SH acts as nucleophile and
picks up the fatty acid chain from the enzyme. This will result in the net
reaction of thiolysis of carbon-carbon bond.