Usage D-3-hydroxybutyrate. Spontaneously, acetoacetate breakdown produce acetone. These ketone

Usage
of ketogenic diets in losing body weight

Introduction

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Ketogenic diets is a high-fat, sufficient
protein, low-carbohydrate diet. (Wikipedia, 2018) Ketogenic force body
to burn fats instead of carbohydrate to achieve the goal of losing weight. In
medical area, ketogenic diet is used to treat children epilepsy. Recently, it
is a popular diet to lose weight. In this article, I will mainly discuss how ketogenic
diets help lose weight and its side effects. However, as all the lose weight
methods, the outcomes of conducting ketogenic diets are very different on
different type of people. The concepts mentioned in article are just for
reference.

 

Principle

When
carbohydrates are digested in our body, glucose produced. Glucose is the most
common fuel in cellular respiration, which provides ATP for cell activities. The
rise in glucose level stimulates the release of insulin. Insulin also inhibited
breakdown of fats thus stimulate storage of body fats. Ketogenic diets requires
low-carbohydrate intake. Under such condition, the concentration of glucose in
blood stream is lower than normal, insulin level decreases. (Volek JS1,
2002)
Glucagon is released instead convert fats to glucose. Hormone –sensitive
lipase(HSL) help hydrolyze the triacylglycerol  to glycerol and
fatty acid. Fatty acid enters liver produce acetyl CoA. Due to lack of glucose
in body, acetyl CoA cannot enter Krebs cycle, increase the concentration of
acetyl CoA. Acetyl CoA then produces acetoacetate. NADH reacts with
acetoacetate produce NAD+ and D-3-hydroxybutyrate. Spontaneously, acetoacetate
breakdown produce acetone. These ketone bodies (acetone, acetoacetate and
D-3-hydroxybutyrate) cannot be absorbed by body, so they enter blood stream and
excrete from body though urine, sweat and respiration. (Chaudhuri)Compare to glucose,
ketone bodies are more efficient fuel. 100 g of glucose generates 8.7 kg of ATP, 100 g of 3-hydroxybutyrate can
yield 10.5 kg of ATP, and 100 g of acetoacetate 9.4 kg of ATP. (The nerve blog, October 15th, 2013) As a more efficient
fuel, it will be used prior to glucose.

 

Experiments on
ketogenic diet

Many clinical
trials have been conducted to research the practicability of ketogenic diet on
fat loss. In general, ketogenic diet indeed helps fat loss. Here is an trail
from Duke University.

 

From July 2000
to July 2001, 1051 volunteers were screened for eligibility and 120 of them
were selected and participate in the experiment. All of them are overweight and
hyperlipidemic volunteers randomly selected from the community. They were
divided into two groups, one for low fats diet and the other for high fats
diet, which is ketogenic diet. In ketogenic diet group, volunteers were given <20 g of carbohydrate daily, nutritional supplementation and exercise regularly. For low-fat diet group, volunteers were given <30% energy from fat, <300 mg of cholesterol daily, and deficit of 500 to 1000 kcal/d. Regular exercises were required. (William S. Yancy Jr., Maren K. Olsen, John R. Guyton, Ronna P. Bakst, & Eric C. Westman, 18 MAY 2004) The expected weight loss is as follows.(Figure 1.)                        Figure 1. Graph of weight changes   After 24 weeks, result basically matched expectation. Result has shown volunteers from ketogenic diet group tended to lose more weight than who conducted low fat diet. In 24 weeks, weight loss in ketogenic diet group is 12.9% while in low fat diet froup is 6.7 %.(Figure 2)                    Figure 2. Weight of volunteers overtime Thus, we can conclude ketogenic diet do works in fat loss.   Limitations However, ketogenic diet tends to cause more adverse effects then low fat diet. In trial mentioned above, for ketogenic diet group, 68% of participants got constipation, 60% of them had headache, 38% of them got halitosis, 35% of them occurred muscle cramps, 23% of them had diarrhea, 25% of them felt general weakness and 13% of them had rash. (William S. Yancy Jr., Maren K. Olsen, John R. Guyton, Ronna P. Bakst, & Eric C. Westman, 18 MAY 2004) While in low fat diet group, such adverse effects also appeared but of relative lower percentage. In general, any fat loss method by dieting will cause similar side effects but the possibility of having side effects through ketogenic diet is abnormally high. Though, it still lies in acceptable range.   Conclusion Ketogenic diet is an extreme fat loss method. It appears to be more effective than traditional methods like fasting, however, it also brings higher health risk to individuals. It is a good method to deal with obesity, quick weight loss in special cases. It is totally unnecessary for normal people, i.e. people who are not plagued by diseases caused by overweight to risk and conduct this method. Exercise regularly is the healthiest way to keep fit.