UNIVERSITI management (OM) is mainly about organizing, supervising in

UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONALCOLLEGE OF ENGINEERINGDEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGMEFB 433- PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROLEMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN OPERATION MANAGEMENTGROUP AND SECTION    : GROUP 13, SECTION 02GROUP MEMBERS    :NICKLAANE KRISHNAMOORTHY                                                  ME 095555                                                       NOOR ADLIN AFIQ BIN NOORDIN                                                         ME 096838NUR IMAN BIN KAMAL                                                                     ME 094830NUR AINUN MARDHIAH BINTI AMRAN                                        ME 094984NIK NOR AZNIZAM BIN NIK NORIZAM                                         ME 096920ACADEMIC YEAR        : SEMESTER 2, 2017/2018DUE DATE                           :  9th JANUARY 2018LECTURER            : EN. ZUBAIDI FAIESAL BIN MOHAMAD RAFAAIEmerging Technologies in Operational ManagementNicklaane Krishnamoorthy 1, a, Noor Adlin Afiq Bin Noordin 2,b, Nur Iman Bin Kamal 3,c,          Nur Ainun Mardhiah Binti Amran 4,d, Nik Nor Aznizam Bin Nik Norizam 5,e1, 2, 3, 4 Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Kajang, Malaysiaa [email protected], b [email protected], c [email protected],                                d [email protected], e [email protected] Keyword: Developing technologies, Emerging Technologies, Business Operation, Operation Management, Goods and Services.Abstract: Technologies that will be developed or currently being developed is known as emerging technology. They include educational, information, biotechnology up to artificial intelligence. Operation management is set of activities that transform inputs to outputs in the form of goods and services that can help add value to the organization. Examples of inputs would be labors, equipment or materials and examples of outputs would be goods and services. Two main terms of operation management are logistics and supply chain management. Emerging technologies in operation management can help and organization to improve productivity and quality, reduce cost and improve customer satisfaction.1.0 Introduction      Operational management (OM) is mainly about organizing, supervising in the production field, manufacturing, and provision of services and planning. Limited resources should be used to ensure business operations are efficient and effective to meet customer’s demand. Main goal of OM would be to support and fulfill shortage of goals using least resources without sacrificing efficiency or quality. There are 4 key areas on developing operations practices, they are, goods and services, process management, supply chain and inventory and quality control. Effective OM can help to reduce cost, increase revenue and also improve customer satisfaction. Operation management would be explained precisely using two terms, they are, supply chain management and logistics. Supply chain management means meeting client demand would be critical when understanding global trends whereas logistics simply means the use of resources and cost have become very important because shortage of supply and disappoint customer’s expectations.      Emerging technologies are technologies that already currently in the process of being developed or will be developed in future. They can be explained as radical novelty, fast growth, coherence, prominent impact and uncertainty 1. The technology will be advanced in all different systems to achieve targets or goals. Hence, emerging technology in operational management is an alternative way to enhance the process control of system with systematical operational management. Figure 1 Operation Management2.0 Methodology on How Emerging Technologies Were Conducted      Two industries which are food and automotive sectors in the Europe were chosen as case study to study how manufacturing or engineering apps (eApps) can help to improve their operations. Detailed business process analysis was conducted in order to identify critical operation through the use of eApps. Interviews, workshops and deep analysis in the shop floor took place, and as for interviews, they were conducted with relevant representatives from specific areas of roles, this interview’s objective was to gather different opinions on current practices. Besides that, business model by Osterwalder was used to map important blocks that influence the eApps. A set of questionnaire was also created in order to guide them in selecting the suitable model 2. Figure 2 The eApps developed for both case study      The main two methods; to enable predication and explanation of behavior and to be useful in theoretical advance (in the social sciences). These methods been tested to private and public interest in promoting metal additive manufacturing in aviation. Methods such as ground theory-building were used. 37 interviews and 80 hours of observations on participant was done. The 37 interviews was primary information to help identify themes of study whereas the participant observations took place at various meetings that was organized by America Makes. A meeting was organized as final method with 25 leaders from the government to discuss how to overcome challenges of the technology 3.          Traceability technology can be used as a mechanism for quality wood trade and shows the current trend and future perspectives. The methodology where it was starting with doing revision on traceability as a tool of quality wood trade. Then, next step is collecting and studying all the systems of traceability. After that, the summarizing of the results that shows all the traceability technologies in the form of chronology, price evaluation, the technology efficiencies and the characteristics. There are a few of main types of wood traceability which are the marking method of punching, marking logs with paint, barcodes, QR codes and innovative experimental technologies which are Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), microwave sensor to identify system and also fingerprint methods 4.            Methods involved are assessing response patterns and scheduled responses over online data capture tools. This looks at consideration checks and control validations to identify oblivious respondents in essential experimental information collection. These prima facie consideration checks run from the straight forward such as invert scaling to begin with proposed a century back to later and included strategies such as assessing reaction designs and coordinated reactions through online information capture instruments. The consideration check validations moreover run from effectively executed components such as programmed location through coordinated questions to profoundly examination of reactions by the analyst. The latter has the potential to present accidental analyst inclination as the researcher’s judgment may affect the interpretation of the information 5.         Knowledge creation through engagement and design apply a plan science approach to offer assistance a Northern European city move forward the proficiency of its domestic care conveyance framework 6.Figure 3 The process of problem framing and solution development             Total of 64 challenges that were split into two categories; Processing Challenges and Metrology Challenges, these challenges represent possible problems, barriers and areas of concern for future silicon photovoltaics technologies. Participants were told that these challenges are within content of emerging materials 7.3.0 Results and Discussions of the Analyzed Methods         For the automotive case study, eApps have been applied to support flexible work environment and activities such as planning. As for the food industry case study, this app have helped that industry to reduce planning times, improve packaging and storage processes especially in monitoring suitable temperature for meat. This eApps have proved that it is a better alternative than the current digital tools, they not only can prove consistent information but they make information understandable and reusable 2.         As the result, regulators (in the case of aviation) of emerging technologies are faced with balancing increasingly tight safety requirements, risks associated with technological uncertainty, and opportunities for innovation, which could bring extended social bene?ts. There were 3 base, technology-based, performance-based, and management based regulation each have advantages and disadvantages. These o?ers a series of policy mechanisms to balance technology uncertainty and the need for innovation, independent of regulatory style. However, not all ?rms in the same industry necessarily have the same knowledge, or less the same capabilities. Regulators obtain their knowledge directly from trailblazers. At the same time, suppliers have economic incentives to implement the technology but do not have the ?nancial resources and human capital to internally develop the same level of knowledge as the leading companies. 3.         This traceability is one of emerging technology that can be used now to increase the efficiency of the production of wood trade. The process was starting prom punching, painting, using barcode, QR code, microwave sensor, RFID and lastly DNA fingerprinting. Hence, this paper proves that using this traceability technology may improve the supply chain of wood become more efficient 4.               The experimental discover of the show work uncover that build and scale validations appear reliably critical change in the fit statistics finding of extraordinary utilize for analysts working predominantly with scales and builds for their observational models. This result shows that, by their exceptionally nature, consideration checks may trigger an inborn trade-off between misfortune of test subjects lowered control and expanded Type II error and the potential of capitalizing on chance alone the plausibility that the already critical comes about were in truth the result of Type I blunder. The investigation moreover appears that the steady loss rates due to consideration checks upwards of 70% in a few watched samples are distant bigger than ordinarily accepted. Such misfortune rates raise the specter that ponders not approving consideration may incidentally increment their Type I mistake rate 5.Table 1 Summary of data validation and attention check options       There are two results obtained; leveling capacity utilization and improved productivity. Home care system for senior citizens in two cities in Finland was able to be improved 6.         By entering input from RV R&D members, total of 14 critical challenges were identified for the six sub categories under to main challenges categories. This Pareto analysis can help to provide some objectives into PV community’s area of interest and as industry, R topics need to push for higher efficiency and inexpensive c-Si modules 7.4.0 Advantages/Benefits of the Emerging Technologies          There are many benefits or RFID technology which is simultaneous multiple readings, there are no requirements on line of sight and also the capabilities of read and write that includes longer range of read. 8.          Digital technologies for operation management are to be implemented by using manufacturing or engineering apps (eApps) for the purpose of manufacturing process and product design. This application can be used on smart devices, which could be a plus point for any decision support on the shop floor. This helps support life cycle activities and increase production efficiency. Besides, this app can also be used for production planning and scheduling 2.Table 2 Benefits of implementing eApps5.0 Disadvantages/ Limitations of Emerging Technologies              There are some limitations on this technology which is in term of the read rate, reliability of data, lack of unified standard, high prices according to the hardware and software of technology and also on security issues. Another limitation on RFID technology is it still needs human intervention for a few activities 8.           Since the model is still at its nascence, many interesting and important topics have not yet been fully explored causing several disadvantages. Perhaps the most notable one is the lack of empirical studies to test established theories. The existing supply chain management model focuses on bounded rationality from supply chain participants. In practice, however, customers may exhibit bounded rationality to a larger extent. This is because customers are usually less informed about the market, they interact with the market less often, and they are not aided by dedicated decision-making systems. Based on these considerations, incorporating customer bounded rationality can provide new insights to interested industries 9.       6.0 Recommendation           The future recommendation from this paper is when applying the RFID technology at the store level, the visibility may give permission the members of supply chain to collect the information on the real demand, hence allowing lean assembling at the level of suppliers and optimizing the replenishment methods at the centre of distribution. Besides, RFID technology has a capability to increase the responsiveness of organization in order to manage the urgent situations. 8.         Technology forecasting is currently one of the famous area of research, even though it offers many opportunities but accurate forecasting is still an issue due to lack of historical data. To overcome this, they recommended and have proved that it’s possible to predict emerging technologies by using supervised learning methods. They overcome that lack of data problem by labelling data using patents that have been published in the United States Trademark and Patent Office. Time lag have limited most studies and this was overcome by depending on backward citations that are available once patent is published 10.           7.0 Summary (Strength and Weakness)          It is definitely non deniable that emerging technologies will constantly take place due to constant innovations by researchers. From all the journals, it can be concluded that the strength of such emerging technologies can help production to be a lot easier in terms of helping improving productivity, quality, stand a place to be unique than existing technologies, improve customer’s demand, and so on. Whenever there is strength in a technology, there will always be a weakness. One weakness of emerging technology is that even though it has abundance of usefulness, but it will not be used my many due to its implantation cost, or sometimes because it is dubious and may not be so convincing for many people as it could be quite high tech. Nevertheless, emerging technologies should constantly take place, researches should constantly innovate and find something new for the country to be compatible with many developed countries. When a country has advanced technologies, it will be looked up to by many people to be followed as example. 9.0 References1 D. H. B. R. M. Daniele Rotolo, “What is Emerging Technology?,” Research Policy, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1827-1843, 2015. 2 J. O. R. F. M. S. a. A. A. Andrea Zangiacomia, “The implementation of digital technologies for operations management: a case study,” Management of Operation, vol. 28, pp. 1318-1331, 2017. 3 b. P. V. M. M. J. M. E. F. Jaime Bonnín Rocaa, “When risks cannot be seen: Regulating uncertainty in emerging technologies,” Research policy, vol. 46, pp. 1215-1233, 2017. 4 Z. A. Ioakeim Tzoulisa, “Emerging Traceability Technologies as a Tool for Quality Wood,” Procedia Technology, vol. 8, pp. 606-611, 2013. 5 M. G. M. James D. Abbey, “Attention by design: Using attention checks to detect inattentive,” Journal of Operations Management, Vols. 53-56, pp. 63-70, 2017. 6 M. K. M. G. J. H. Johan Groopa, “Improving home care: Knowledge creation through engagement and design,” Journal of Operations Management, Vols. 53-56, pp. 9-22, 2017. 7 R. B. H. S. M. A. R. W. S. K.O. Davis, “Pareto analysis of critical challenges for emerging,” Solar Energy, vol. 107, pp. 681-691, 2014. 8 Y. B. Samuel Fosso Wamba, “Understanding the Impact of Emerging Technologies on Process Optimization: The case of RFID Technology,” Engineering and Information Sciences, 2008. 9 H. a. H. T. Ren, “Modelling customer bounded rationality in operations management: A review and research opportunities,” Computers & Operations Research, vol. 91, pp. 48-58, 2018. 10 G. C. Y. H. C. H. Z. Z. Moses Ntanda Kyebambea, “Forecasting emerging technologies: A supervised learning approach through,” Technological Forecasting & Social Change, vol. 125, pp. 236-244, 2017.

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