TOU211 RESEARCHING PEOPLE AND PLACES NAME : SUSMITHA MOHAN

                                                                  TOU211       

                                    
RESEARCHING PEOPLE AND PLACES

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NAME
: SUSMITHA MOHAN

MISIS
: M00609681

YEAR
: 2017-2018

 

PART
1

LITERATURE
REVIEW

PROCESS
OF SEARCH EXERCISE

In
order to start the topic I had to do certain research on the topic
sustainability as the main content of the literature review will be focusing on
the importance of environmental sustainability in the hospitality industry. To
research on the topic sustainability academic research needed to be undertaken
and thus Summon was used as it provides journal articles which is purely
academic and reliable. The search process was done using the key words
environmental sustainability, importance of sustainability, sustainability
factors etc. Many articles on the importance of sustainability  was developed from journals such as “Tourism and hospitality small and medium enterprises
and environmental sustainability”, “Journal
of Sustainable Tourism” etc. While going through the search
results one topic that was highlighted in every article was about the ” Triple
bottom line approach” (TBL) which is an assessment system used to maintain and
control the different types of impacts and thus the article “The Triple Bottom Line:
What Is It and How Does It Work?.” Was
used to mention in detail about the approach. The challenging part of the
search process was to find the detailed stages in the TBL approach ,but upon
changing the key words from “The triple bottom line approach”  to 3P’s approach by John Elkington provided a
deeper information regarding the approach and its stages. There were many
articles regarding tourism sustainability 
but to find an article which exactly mention about tourism
sustainability in the hospitality was one the challenging part. The main
purpose of selecting this topic was to gain more information about
sustainability and also about the 
different fields under it.

 

 

 

 

ENVIRONMENTAL
SUSTAINABILITY IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

Tourism
is one of the fastest growing industry in today’s world, due to the rise in
tourism supply many hoteliers have taken the importance of sustainability into
consideration as it is one of the main factors regarding the hotel development
and its operations, including the environmental, economic and social impacts.
In today’s world sustainability is one of the major issue facing our world.
This literature review will focus on the importance of environmental
sustainability in the hospitality industry.

Environmental
sustainability in simple terms can be defined as “maintaining the natural
capital” has gained a lot of importance in time when the community faced huge
depletion and increased consumption of natural resources especially in the case
of fresh water. The hospitality industry is a creation of the external
environment regarding its attitudes and use of resources (Alonso and Ogle, 2010). The size of the
world’s hotel industry is quite not easy to measure regarding numbers as it has
grown quickly over the past few decades and now it is widely recognized as a
global industry. Over the past few decades an increasing awareness has seen
among the hoteliers regarding the impacts of hotel development and its
operations, and thus the idea of sustainability has emerged among hoteliers as
it could benefit them from addressing the environment and social impacts in a
more systematic way (Jones, Hillier and Comfort, 2014) . As there is an
increasing demand for “green alternatives” among the hotel patrons
the hoteliers are becoming more prompt to initiate the basic steps towards
greater environmental responsibility (Cvelbar and Dwyer, 2013) Each action and
activities done by the tourists in the tourism business can affect every member
of a destination on a daily basis through a variety of impacts. This suggests
that there is a need for an assessment system that measures the performance of
tourism industry and also provides proper information about tourism within the
greater community (Tyrrell, Paris and Biaett, 2012).The triple bottom line(TBL)
approach is one of the most comprehensive approaches which was developed by
John Elkington in 1998; this approach is a planning and reporting system and
decision-making framework that is aimed at measuring and controlling the
economic, environmental and social dimensions of companies success (Cvelbar and
Dwyer, 2013). The TBL is also known as 3P’s (people, planet, and profit) which
is triple value adding and blended value (Hammer and Pivo, 2016). The three bottom
lines in the approach are A) people who are the social bottom line also known
as human capital bottom line refers to the measurements of a community or
locale and could also incorporate estimations of education, access to social
assets, personal satisfaction and social capital. B) planet which is
environmental bottom line also known as natural capital bottom line, this
states the measurements of natural resources and reflect potential impacts to
its feasibility. Ideally having long –go patterns accessible for each of the
environmental factors would enable the organizations to recognize the effects
that a project or policy would have to face in an area. C) profit which is the
economic bottom line deals with the flow of money (Slaper and Hall, 2011). In
order to maintain or increase the competitiveness of a company it is important
to develop certain models that decide the key sustainability factors of a
tourism destinations sustainability. The key sustainability factors are the
main drivers in organizing sustainable tourism destination with an objective of
achieving sustainable performance  (Rodríguez Díaz and Espino Rodríguez, 2016).
Thus determining the sustainability factors and undertaking proper planning and
actions would help lower tourism performance countries to increase it tourism
performances.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

1.      Alonso, A. and Ogle, A. (2010). Tourism and hospitality small
and medium enterprises and environmental sustainability. Management Research Review, 33(8),
pp.818-826.

2.      Cvelbar, L. and Dwyer, L. (2013). An importance–performance
analysis of sustainability factors for long-term strategy planning in Slovenian
hotels. Journal of Sustainable
Tourism, 21(3), pp.487-504.

3.      Hammer, J. and Pivo, G. (2016). The Triple Bottom Line and
Sustainable Economic Development Theory and Practice. Economic Development Quarterly,
31(1), pp.25-36.

4.       Jones, P.,
Hillier, D. and Comfort, D. (2014). Sustainability in the global hotel
industry. International Journal
of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(1), pp.5-17.

5.      Rodríguez Díaz, M. and Espino Rodríguez, T. (2016).
Determining the Sustainability Factors and Performance of a Tourism Destination
from the Stakeholders’ Perspective. Sustainability,
8(9), p.951.

6.      Slaper, T. and Hall, T. (2011). The Triple Bottom Line: What Is It and How Does It Work?.

7.      Tyrrell, T., Paris, C. and Biaett, V. (2012). A Quantified
Triple Bottom Line for Tourism. Journal
of Travel Research, 52(3), pp.279-293.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART
2

Questionnaire

Questionnaire
regarding the development of hospitality industry due to sustainable tourism.

Age

 

Nationality

 

Country of residence

 

Gender

 

 

1.     
Are you a resident or tourist ? ( if
resident please skip to question 3 )

Resident           Tourist

 

 

2.     
How many times have you visited Dubai in
the past 5 years ?

 once                 twice            thrice             more than three times

 

 

3.     
Have you noticed any developments in Dubai since your last
visit ?

Yes                    No

 

 

4.     
Do you think that the concept of
sustainable tourism has helped in the development of hospitality industries in
Dubai ?

Yes                   No                 Not sure

 

 

5.     
Do you believe natural resource protection and tourism can
be reconcilable ?

Strongly agree   Agree                Disagree         Strongly disagree     
Neither agree or disagree

 

6.     
On a scale of  1 to 5 ( 1 being least and 5 being the most)
rate the type of accommodation you would prefer to stay during your leisure
time.

Luxury hotels

 

Eco friendly hotels

 

Sustainable heath
hotels and resorts

 

Lodges

 

With family and
friends

 

Other

 

 

 

 

7.     
From the below mentioned options which
option do you consider that an eco friendly hotel should have ?

True resource management

Carbon assessment and management

Optimization of water. Energy and
waste

All of the above

 

 

8.     
Are you satisfied with the services
provided by the hospitality industry ? ( if not please mention the reason )

 Satisfied                            Not satisfied

 

 

 

9.     
Are you aware of the Dubai sustainable
tourism program (DST),if yes please state your opinion about the program.

Yes                                   No

 

 

            Reflection on the questionnaire

 

The
second part of the exercise portfolio was to develop a questionnaire based
on  the literature review which is part
one of the exercise portfolio. In order to develop the questionnaire a thorough
reading of the literature review was necessary to frame the questions related
to the topic I choose. The topic I choose for the literature review was
‘Environmental sustainability in hospitality industry .

 

The
questions were presented to the interviewees in a manner to understand their
(resident/tourist) opinion about the concept of development of sustainable
tourism in the hospitality industries. And also about their opinion on how
sustainable tourism development program has changed the tourism sector in Dubai
for the past few years. In order to get an idea on how to properly frame a
questionnaire I had to refer “Guide to the design of questionnaires” by (Burgess, 2001) which provided a proper format on how
to frame each questions. The format also provided instructions on how the
respondents should be able to answer each question. In order to avoid confusion
I included certain instructions such as ( if resident please skip to
question 3 ) which would help the respondents to answer each question without
having any doubt. According to (Burgess, 2001) in “Guide to the design of questionnaires” it is
mentioned that questionnaires should be logical and very simple, by following
these instructions I have framed questions in a way that are respondents are
first introduced to basic questions such as Name, Age, Gender etc and then to
questions relating to the literature review topic which would understand their
perspective of respondents  about the
topic.

 

While
preparing the questionnaire I also made sure that the questions are not very
complex to answer. I also made sure that the questions are framed in simple
words which is easy for the respondents to understand and answer in a less
period of time. For Question 5 scales were used so that the respondents could
express their feelings openly.

 

 

 References

1.       Burgess, D. (2001).
Guide to the design of questionnaires. 1st ed.  ebook Available at: http://iss.leeds.ac.uk/downloads/top2.pdf
Accessed 16.Jan.2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART
3

SPSS
Analysis

Using the data
collected from the waste management survey, the research question for this
exercise was to find out how respondents as tourists reduce and recycle waste
during their stay in other countries and also why tourists prefer to visit
environment friendly countries. In order to study the findings, SPSS was used
to develop the data and create tables and chart.

                                         Descriptive Statistics

Steps
to get statistics and histogram chart :

1.      Click
on “Analyze” from the given tabs.

2.      Select
“Descriptive Statistics”, then click on “Frequencies”.

3.      Scroll
down and select the variable for analysis. Click the arrow to move the
selection to the “Variable” column.

4.      Click
on “Statistics”, under “central tendency” select “Mean” ,”Median” and “Mode”.

5.      Click
on “Standard Deviation” under “Dispersion” and “Skewness” under “Distribution,”
then click “Continue”

6.      Select
“Charts”, “Histogram” and select the option “Show normal curve on Histogram”.

7.      Click
on “Continue” and then click “OK”

For
the Frequency table and bar chart

8.      Click
on “Analyze” then click on “Descriptive Statistics”.

9.      Select
“Frequencies”.

10.   Select “Variables” and then click on arrow to
move them to the column on the right.

11.   Click on “Charts” and select “Bar Chart”

12.   Click “Continue” then click “OK”.

 

The  two main variable chosen:

·        
Tourist recycle

·        
Tourist visiting environment friendly
countries

Descriptive statistics

Frequencies

 

 
 

Statistics
 

I reduce and recycle
waste, whenever possible during my visits to foreign countries as a tourist

As a tourist, I always
like to visit environmentally friendly countries

N

Valid

259

260

Missing

3

2

Mean

4.32

4.47

Median

4.00

4.00

Mode

4

4

Std.
Deviation

1.719

1.721

Skewness

-.259

-.330

Std.
Error of Skewness

.151

.151

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table
1
:  Statistics, standard deviation and
skewness

 

 

Figure
1:
Histogram showing standard deviation, mean and dispersion of responses

 

 

 

 

Figure
2: Histogram
showing standard deviation, mean and dispersion of responses

 

 

 

 

Descriptive
statistics conclusion

 

All of the study
were done using IBM SPSS software. In order to create Mean, Median and Mode (
Central tendency ) and the frequencies the suitable options were used to create
both the frequency tables and also the charts.

 

                                                    Analytical
Statistics

Steps
to carry out bivariate analysis on SPSS

1.     
Click on “Analysis” from the tabs
given, select “Correlate” then choose “Bivariate”

2.     
Scroll through the variables on the
left side of the window and find two variables for further analysis.

3.     
Select two variables and click on
the arrow to make them move to the column on the left side of the window.

4.     
Select the option “Pearson” and
then click on “Options”. Then on the right side of the pop up, click on “Means”
and “Standard Deviation”.

5.     
Click “Continue” then click on
“OK”.

6.     
Select “Graphs”, “Legacy Dialogs”
and select “Scatter/Dot” and select “Simple Scatter”.

7.     
Select a variable for X and Y axis
and then click “OK”.

 

 

 

The  two main variable chosen:

·        
Tourist recycle

·        
Tourist visiting environment friendly
countries

The reason for choosing
these two variables is the conduct a comparison between the number of tourists
recycling the waste during their stay in foreign countries and the number of
tourists willing to visit environment friendly countries.

 

 

                                  

Figure
3 : scatter
plot

 

 

 

Descriptive Statistics

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

I reduce and recycle
waste, whenever possible during my visits to foreign countries as a tourist

4.32

1.719

259

As a tourist, I always
like to visit environmentally friendly countries

4.47

1.721

260

 

Table
2:Mean
and Standard deviation

 

 

 

 

CORREALATION

 

 

I reduce and recycle waste, whenever possible during my visits
to foreign countries as a tourist

As a tourist, I always like to visit environmentally friendly
countries

I reduce and recycle
waste, whenever possible during my visits to foreign countries as a tourist

Pearson Correlation

1

.518**

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

N

259

258

As a tourist, I always like
to visit environmentally friendly countries

Pearson Correlation

.518**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

 

N

258

260

**. Correlation is
significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analytical
analysis conclusion

The analytical
statistics were also done using IBM SPSS software. The statistics table was
created to understand the mean and standard deviation of the two variables  chosen and also the correlations table was
created to understand the comparison between both the variables. The scatter
plot diagram was created to have a more deeper understanding about the results.

 

 

Part
4

Interview

                                                       
Interview checklist

Topic

The topic for the
interview will be about the development of hospitality industry by adopting
sustainable tourism.

Date

Monday, 4th
December 2017

Location

Room 017, block 17,

Middlesex university,
knowledge village,

Dubai, UAE.

Time

Interview commencing at
2 p.m.

Duration : 15 minutes

About
me

I am an undergraduate
student, currently undergoing the 2nd year of the International
Tourism Management Bachelor’s Degree at Middlesex University, Dubai.

Purpose
of conducting research

The interview will be
conducted in order to understand the developments of hospitality industry by
adopting sustainable tourism and how the tourism industry has changed over the
years.

What’s
required ?

General knowledge about
sustainable tourism and the ability to concentrate and answer the questions
patiently.

Confidentiality

All the answers
gathered during the interview process will remain highly confidential and will
be not discussed among others.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                            
Interview  guide

1.     
Opening

Good afternoon!

Today I will be
interviewing you regarding sustainable tourism and its developments .

The duration of the
interview will only be about 10 to 15 minutes.

2.     
Body

Questions:

1.      What is your name ?

 

2.      Where are you from ?

 

3.      Are you visiting Dubai for the
first time ?

 

4.      Is there any specific reason for
visiting Dubai ?

a)     
If
yes, can u mention the reason?

 

5.      How often do you go on holidays ?

 

6.      Do you think that the
sustainability of the tourism sector has improved in Dubai ?

 

7.      What is your opinion about the
hospitality companies in Dubai about improving their environmental performance
?

 

8.      Dubai is famous for achieving many
awards in the field of tourism, can you state your views on this ?

 

 

3.     
Conclusion

As
the interview session comes to an end I would like to make a quick recap on the
information I gathered today to make sure that all the information I obtained
was right.

 

Your
name is  …………….. and you are from ………………
. You are visiting Dubai for the ………….. time and your main reasons for visiting
Dubai is ……………… . You also believe that the sustainability of the tourism
sector ……………. (has or has not ) improved in Dubai. You concluded by stating
your views about the achievements of Dubai in the tourism sector as
……………………………. .

 

Thank
you very much for your time and for all the information provided.

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