Those personality, cognitive, clinical, and neuroscience (Schacter, 2011, p34).

Those who call themselves
psychologists hold a variety of different degrees and can choose from a variety
of options when looking at job opportunities. Although there are plenty of
career paths that involve research and teaching, most psychologists asses or
treat people with pathological issues. According to the American Psychology
Association (2011), job opportunities are not limited but include counseling,
health, school/educational, developmental, social and personality, cognitive,
clinical, and neuroscience (Schacter, 2011, p34). These subfields come together
as a community of professionals who are devoted to advancing scientific
knowledge, enhancing the quality of life, work, and school and assisting those
with psychological problems (Schacter, p34).

Social Psychology is a broad area
of study that allows a variety of topics to be examined. According to Schacter (2011),
“social psychology is the study of the causes and consequences of interpersonal
behavior” (p27). The birth of social psychology is traced back to observations
showing how the presence of others can influence the performance of a task. The
Holocaust is a great example of how strongly one can influence other’s thoughts
and actions no matter how inhumane. Psychologist Gordon Allport shook the field
of psychology by arguing that prejudice was a simple error and was just as
unavoidable as an optical illusion. Schacter (2011) describes this area of
psychology dedicated to understanding the brain as a social organ, the mind as
a social adaptation, and the individual as a social creature (p28).

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Seeing that social psychology is
such a broad field, one could get creative when looking at career
opportunities. Elementary, Middle, and High-School could be an option for a
social psychologist. One who is able to positively influence children in a
school setting can have a powerful impact on how children treat and interact
with others as they grow into adults. One’s job description could include
working with school districts on educational programs. Marketing research
companies could also be an option for those who have an interest in marrying
the art of marketing and psychology. As an employee at a marketing research
company one would be able to break-down the decision-making process behind why
a consumer might choose Pepsi over Coca-Cola. Job duties in this niche could
include but are not limited to evaluating the decision-making process of
consumers, developing a strategy to reach their desired target market, and
analyzing influence factors such as gender, age, location, culture, and
economic status. Openings at an Advertising Agency might have similar job
descriptions. If one has an interest in politics, a social psychologist could
find career opportunities in that area as well. The job description in this
niche might involve working with politicians on campaign strategies during
election periods and during the duration of their time in office (DiFonzo,
2018).

Cognitive psychology is the
scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory,
and reasoning (Schacter, 2011, p22). This area of psychology is concerned with
how people acquire, process, and store information. Major areas of interest
include language, attention, memory, problem-solving, and decision-making.
Psychologist Kurt Lewin observed that it was not particularly the stimulus that
created a response but rather the person’s perception of the stimulus that
created such a response. His insistence that psychologists study how people
perceive their worlds had a lasting impact on psychology (Schacter, 2011, p22).

Since Cognitive psychology has many
practical applications, one could find a career in software development and
design. According to Schacter (2011), the first design of the computer heavily
influenced the psychology field beginning in the 1950’s (p22). As a software
designer and cognitive psychologist, one is responsible for designing
technology that is essentially designed around the human mind. One’s job
description in this field could include examining user’s needs and performance
abilities for equipment design. This data is then applied for improvement in
design and improve their accessibility and appeal to the consumer (“Engineering
Psychology: Career Info, Job Duties, and Requirements” 2003-2018).  Industrial-Organizational Psychologist is
another career opportunity under the umbrella of cognitive psychology. One’s
job description might include studying employee’s attitudes and behaviors, evaluating
companies, and conducting leadership training. The overall goal under this job
title is to study and understand human behavior in the workplace. When looking
at the industrial side, the psychologist might assess employee characteristics
and then match them to jobs they are likely to excel at. When looking at the
organizational side, the psychologist studies how the organization affect’s a
person’s behavior such as management styles, role expectations, and social
norms (American Psychological Association, 2018).

Evolutionary Psychology explains
mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are
preserved over time by natural selection (Schacter, 2011, p26). In this area of
study, “the mind is thought of a collection of modules that are designed to
solve problems our ancestors faced during their attempt to eat, mate, and
reproduce” (Schacter, 2011, p26). Evolution psychologists believe the brain was
built to do a few things wells rather than do or learn all.

When looking at the job field as an
evolutionary psychologist, much of the job openings are formed around education
and research. When looking at research focused jobs, one may be employed at
research facilities, institutions, independent laboratories, or by state or
federal agencies. The type of research usually hovers around reproductive
processes, physical attraction, issues related to inherited traits, and
behavior research. Evolutionary psychologists may enter the field of private
practice as well. Typically, these job descriptions involve the ability to work
with individuals or groups who seek to change unwanted behavior. Since
evolutionary psychologists believe that behavior is the result of internal
mechanisms evolved over time, they examine the client’s environment and
relationships to determine conflict. Psychologists are responsible for helping
individuals adapt to their environment (“Psychology School Guide” 2018).

All areas of psychology bring so
many positive advances within the field. Depending on the environment of the
niche would determine which area of psychology would be best suited. The field
of psychology has really opened up since the late 1800’s when the American
Psychological Association consisted of only white males. The increase of
diversification allows professional psychologists a better understanding of
overall culture, gender, and race perspective.

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

American Psychological Association. 2018. Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

            Retrieved
from http://www.apa.org/ed/graduate/specialize/industrial.aspx

Schacter, Daniel L., Gilbert, Daniel T., and
Wegner, Daniel M.  (2011). Psychology. New York:

            Worth
Publishers

DiFonzo, Nicholas. 2018. Careers in Social Psychology. Retrieved from

            https://www.learnpsychology.org/social-psychology/

2003-2018. Engineering Psychology: Career Info, Job Duties, and Requirements.

Retrieved
from https://study.com/articles/Engineering_Psychology_Career_Info_Job_Duties_and_Requirements.html

2018. Evolutionary
Psychology Careers. Retrieved from

            https://www.psychologyschoolguide.net/psychology-careers/evolutionary-psychologists/