This FOUNDATION Raft foundation (Mat foundation) is a type

     This project requires to demonstrate the
understanding of basic components of a building by conducting a research of an
active construction area. Apart from that, I need to observe and record the
building components such as, foundation system, flooring, wall system, doors
and windows, staircases, roofs, carpentry and joinery works during the
construction process.



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   This project report based on a company known
as BOSCH, a German multinational engineering and electronic company, providing
car multimedia systems and power tools at Bayan Lepas, Industrial Park, Penang,
Malaysia, opposite the famous Snake Temple. The founder of BOSCH is Robert
Bosch in 1886. The management has decided to transfer and additional of 3
levels to the existing 1 storey company. This proposed plan of the building was
approved by department of development on 6th December 2016. The date
of completion of the project will be somewhere in the year 2018.




    Foundation is to ensure that the structural
loads are transmitted to the subsoil safely, and its also constructed below the
ground level so as to increase the lateral stability of the structure. Besides
that, foundation is to ensure the structural is safe against undermining, to
secure a level and firm bed for building operations. Soil condition, structural
loading and type of structure are important aspects to consider, before
choosing the foundation type. Before proceed, the contractor has to demolished
all the existing building and foundation because old foundation is usually not
sturdy enough to support new buildings. Gravity loads include ‘dead’ (permanent
load), include the weight of walls, floors, finishes and mechanical systems and
“live” (temporary load) include the structure’s contents and occupants.





      Raft foundation (Mat foundation) is a type
foundation that a large concrete slab which can support a number of columns and
walls. The slab is spread out under the entire building which lower the contact
pressure compared to other type foundations. The raft foundation is cheaper,
easier to install and most importantly, did not require as much excavation as
the usual strip foundation.


used for foundation is concrete, a mixture of cement, fine and coarse aggregates
and water. The ratio is 1:3:6, which means mixing of 1 part of cement, 3 parts
of fine aggregates and 6 parts of coarse aggregates. Foundation process took
about 3 to 4 weeks to complete and procced to flooring process. The last
process for foundation is curing. As for the curing, it takes place immediately
after concrete placing. It took 3 – 4 days process with proper cover. They prepare
protecting boards and precast pipe cover for waterproofing membranes.







     Floor system is able to carry the static and
dynamic load (live load and also dead load applied. Its should have sufficient
fall for drainage if necessary and even, and non-slippery finish is essential
for safety. Main function of flooring is for dampness prevention, strength,
stability, resistance to sound and fire resistance.

prevention causes by improper ventilation, degradation of the brickwork and
unsealed joints in roof coverings. To prevent the scenario, they have planned
ahead, by creating a path for water flow from the soil in contact with the
building’s foundation. Followed by strength of the floor structure, depends on the
thickness of the floor slab. The thickness of the floor slab advisable to have
4 to 5 inches, so that can withstand the dead load and heavy load as well as
the live load that are applied on it. For the stability, the floor must be
always in flat planar after receiving the dead loads by placing a precast beam
inside the concrete and its must be able to support sufficient space for
building service.

       Best sound insulation (soundproof) is to
avoid the unwanted conversations or interrupting other co-workers. Every type
of floor has its own unique soundproofing need, and for that they consider of
using carpets or rug type carpets. The benefits of fire resistance flooring, is
can reduce the spread of flames and smoke throughout an area and provide
greater protection of people and property.

       Concrete type floor system is safer,
compare to other type floor system. Concrete requires no additional
fireproofing treatments and concrete’s inherent heaviness and strength can
perform well during natural and manmade disasters. Concrete seems to be strong
in compression but weak in tension, and as for that, they are planning to place
a precast beam inside the concrete floor.

       As there will be 4 levels in the
building, each level has different types of slab. For example, there will be
flat slab with beam, 2-way joist without beams (waffle), flat plate, and 1 way
slab with beams.

      Concrete contractions are basic to have
crack on the wall and floor, to overcome that, there are some suitable
treatment. One of it is structural, which will seal the crack using resins and
weld the concrete. Other treatment is sealing and filling, meaning repair
material do bond the crack faces together and may have considerable strength
that can cause concrete and material tearing. On other way, they plan to use
concrete floor joints, example, contraction joints, isolation joints or construction


          The formwork is built on site out
timber for foundation and precast system for building structure. Its is also
the most flexible type of formwork, so even where other systems are in use,
complicated sections may use it.

















     A wall is a structure that defines an
area, works as weather shield, gives privacy and security. Wall structure acts
as a load bearing wall and non-load bearing wall. Wall is a solid structure
which build from bricks, concrete block, timber, metal and extra. Functions
required for a wall are stability, strength, temperature control, resistance to
noise, and fire resistance.

      There are two types of wall, external
wall and internal wall. External wall ignites, the fire can spread to the roof,
window, door and other building components. To prevent that, use gypsum area
separation walls. Gypsum separation walls provide a 2-hours fire protection and
also can reduce sound transmission. Common cladding alternatives one of the
most popular alternative for renovating the exterior of existing buildings.
Cladding benefits are greater when dealing with high storey buildings. Composite
panels very economical cladding material as compared to other options.

      Precast concrete block used to build
walls and it has hollow cores that can be filled with concrete onsite for
additional reinforcement. Precast concrete blocks are heavy and durable. They
are resistant to fire, rot, and also termites. It’s also cost effective because
of the speedy setup process. The brick bonds are common. Each wall builds 3
meters horizontally and 3 meters vertically. The precast concrete blocks bonded
together by using adhesives cement gum.

      There are no wood stud walls in their construction
plan. Factors to consider after build the wall structure, are plastering or skim
coat. The undercoat should be slightly damp when plaster or skim coat is
applied. The plaster makes the wall more waterproof and smooth.

      Wood post and beam framing structure are
sometimes made of timber that is held together by metal bracket. Half lap
splice joints are used as a method of joining two members end to end in
woodworking. Splice joints are stronger and have the potential to be stronger
than other types joints. They planned to have curtain walls around the
staircases wall. Curtain walls are non-load bearing and offer multiple benefits
to multi-storey buildings. 





       Doors defined as an open able barrier or
a framework of wood, steel, aluminium, glass or a combination of these
materials. Why do we need doors? Doors provide privacy and it’s serves as a
connecting link between various space. It’s also provide security, ventilation
and as well good sound insulation.

      Door and doorways provide access into a
building’s interior from exterior and passage between interior spaces. As for
the entrance door and each room /cabin door, it’s made of normal steel door. Normal
steel doors work best for exterior-facing and interior- facing doors that need
to withstand heavy traffic and exterior elements. Steel doors also easy to
clean and maintain       As for the door
accessories, there will be hinge, door closer, handle, crash bar, and door
stopper. Hinge is a component that attaches one edge of a door to the frame,
while allowing the other edge to swing from it. There will be a hydraulic
device, played the role of door closer, installed at the top of the door and
slow the door’s closure behind someone. There are many types of door handles.
The most suitable door handles for steel door are lever handle and doorknob.
Doorknob is the most common door handle and lever handle are particularly
helpful when you need to get through a door with your hands full. It’s do not
require you to turn the knob to get the door to unlatch and it will unlatch
quite easily. Each floor has a crash bar or also known as panic exit device. As
for the latch bolt and dead bolt, both are common and to choose the type of
bolt, depend on the room that need extra security. A door stopper will be
mounted on the wall to help protect the interior walls from damaged by door

        Window is an opening (open and shut)
especially in the wall of a building for admission of light and air that is usually
closed by casements containing transparent material such as glass. Window
provides natural ventilation and lighting, provides view of exterior or
interior, and work as weather shield. Fixed windows and casement windows are
most common windows, can be found in a company building. Casement windows are
the most effective window, easy to open and close. It’s also give excellent
ventilation. Fixed window also has some advantage that benefits us, such as
it’s cost less than other window. Fixed window gives natural light and it’s
helps to gain natural heat from the sun.

       All the windows are insulated glazing
with tinted glasses. Tinted glass absorbs a large fraction of the incoming
solar radiation through a window, reducing the solar heat gain coefficient,
visible transmittance and glare. Selective coatings can be applied on insulated
glazing to help reduce these types of heat transfer. Plus, there also will be
window blind in each cabin for privacy, shades, and also for better looking




      In buildings, stairs is a term applied to
a complete flight of steps between two floors.  A staircase or stairway is one or more flights
of stairs leading from one floor to another, and includes landings, newel
posts, handrails, balustrades and additional parts.

      Staircase is to provide access from one
level to another and act as structural core to high rise building. It’s provide
a quick escape in case of fire. There will be a precast staircase in each floor
as an access from one floor to another. Precast staircase is suitable for
high-rise building where staircases are similar and repeatable. It is easy
installation, eliminate messy formwork and smooth surface finish. Zig zag types
staircases or mostly known as U- shaped staircases, are common to find in
commercial buildings.  

        Precast concrete staircases faster and
easier for construction companies. It’s support durable and fire resistance
too. Steel balustrade assemblies is more durable compared to wood, which can be
prone to fading and scratching. It’s also a way to create a luxury look. Either
a mirrored or satin finish, both can create a luxuries finish with whatever you
pair them with. Steel handrails being the most versatile and durable material
and used in many industries for various purposes. It’s easy to maintain too.




The staircase is a closed
riser with sawtooth stringer. The riser and the tread will be 1 foot
respectively. The run of the stairs will be approximately 2 meters and there
will 48 steps from ground floor to third floor, which means approximately each
floor has 16 steps. Cat ladder is a low weight ladder with good stability. Cat
ladder used on steep roofs to prevent workers from sliding. Accessories for cat
ladder are handrail, non-slippery steps, hoop guard, hoop and step-on platform.
















       A roof is the covering on the uppermost
part of a building or shelter. It’s provides protection from weather (rain,
heat, sunlight and wind) and animals. The characteristics of a roof are
dependent upon the purpose of the building that it covers.

      Weather exclusion is one of the main
function of a roof. The roof system functions as the primary sheltering element
for the interior spaces of a building. Secondly, for structural strength and
stability. A roof must able to carry both its own weight and live loads such as
wind, because its load transferred down to the foundation system, same like
floor system. Lastly, drainage is important to the successful function of a
project site. Drainage helps guide water flow in order to remove it from the
ground surface.

They planned to construct
a metal roofing, which will be two layers of sound and heat insulation. From
the initial building and installation to the materials most often used to cover
the roof and flat roof quite cheap. Flat roof can make use of the space once
the roof is done, example can install air conditioning units on the roof. It’s
have the ability to have a more versatile interior space as well. Flat roof is
generally more accessible than sloped roofs, such as cleaning the gutter making
repairs, and installation work.



      Flat roof does drain, but not nearly as
efficiently as a roof with any kind of pitch. Thus, the water will puddle and
remain on the roof, which could lead to the roofing material breaking down and
leak. To avoid this, upstand the heights at the outset, setting out the roof
design from the highest point as a start.

      Queen post is a tension member in a truss
that can span longer openings than a king truss. A queen-post bridge has two
uprights, places about one-third of the way from each end of the truss. They
are connected across the top by a beam and use a diagonal brace between the
outer edges.



   Gutters and downspouts are important part of
any roofing installation. Gutters and downspouts are not expensive but, they
have play a vital role in the roof doing its job.  It’s important to remove excess water that
runs off the roof as quickly as possible. Hanging gutter is located directly
over roof rafter wherever possible for a stronger support. The strap hanger
inserted under the roofing material and attached securely to the roofing deck.




      Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the
primary work performed in the cutting, shaping, and installation of building
materials during the construction of buildings, concrete formwork and etc,
while joinery is installing metal and timber windows and sashes, and metal and
timber doors, constructing and erecting prefabricated units.

      Wood is unlike concrete or metals. Wood
material can be grown and regrown through natural processes and also through
forestry management programs. Wood is relatively lightweight building material,
it can  support its own weight better in
some building designs. It is also good sound absorption, and has a natural
resistance to electrical conduction and heat resistance.

      Carpentry in building is to make the
whole work complete, because it looks simple amazing when you add wood in the
building procedure. In fact, wood is also durable and has natural beauty. Carpentry
with hardwood like ash type wood, play a role in construction project such as
roofs, walls, staircases and floors.

                                PLAIN                                MEDIUM FIGURE                   HIGHLY FIGURED

      Quarter sawn lumber is more dimensionally
stable than plain sawn lumber. It requires more physical labour and time to
make a piece of lumber. Quarter sawn is more stable than plain sawn lumber and
increase moisture resistance. It’s also less expensive than rift sawn lumber.

      Wood panel products are less susceptible
to shrinking or swelling, require less labour to install and they tend to be
consistent in quality. Plywood is a type of wood panel products, which will be
laminated panel of wood veneers laid with their grain direction at right angles
to one another