This disc jockey, as also links the isolated individual

This
essay discusses about the two continuities and one shift that can be found
within the academic research studied from 1980 to present day. Specifically, Hobson
(1980), Radway (1987) and Bull (2007) that will show the continuation of
isolation whereby the use of a certain media as the medium for their isolation.
There is also a continuation of dailiness in everyday lives in the works of
Hobson (1980), Scannell (1996) and Bull (2007) on the usage of certain mediums
that is scheduled in one’s everyday lives. On the other hand, a shift is
occurred on the emergence of the new technology where research about the old
technology such as radio and television has shifted to the newer technology
such as video cassette recorder and iPod in the works of Hobson (1980), Gray
(1992), Bull (2007) and Miller and Slater (2000).

 

 

            There was a continuation in
isolation. This begins with Hobson’s academic research in 1980, Housewives and the
Mass Media, primarily radio and television as medium to isolate
themselves in their daily lives. For instance, radio plays a role in the
women’s lives as an isolation tool to help them get through the day in their domestic labour, housework and child care (Hobson, 1980:
p.93). The disc jockey (DJ) provides the missing ‘company’ of another live of
the women as the DJ acts as a role of a sexual fantasy-figure in the lives of
the women who listen (ibid: p.95). Moreover, the disc jockey, as also links the isolated
individual woman with the understanding that there are other women in the same
position (ibid: p.97). The radio programmes also
can be seen as a functional effect of ‘phone-in’ programmes (ibid). One of the
women says: ‘I like listening to the people that phone in (ibid). I like the
conversations …. I suppose it’s ‘cos I’m on me own’ (ibid). These programmes
not only provide contact with the ‘outside’ world; they also strengthen the
privatized isolation by stating the consensual position that there are
thousands of other women in the same situation, in a sort of ‘collective
isolation’ (ibid). Besides, radio can be seen, then, as
providing women with a musical reminder of their leisure activities before they
married (ibid). On top of that, listening to
music and dancing are the leisure activities which the women would most like to
pursue and radio is also a substitute for the real world of music and discos
which they have lost (ibid). Thus, listening to radio is how a woman tend to
isolate themselves.

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            Furthermore, continuation of
isolation is continued with Radway’s academic research in 1987, Reading the Romance, with the women
reading romance novels as a way to isolate themselves from the reality for a
while (Radway, 1987: p.93). Furthermore, reading romance novels also provides
pleasure for the women as it provides them the privacy of the act that enables
them to focus on a single object, romance novels (ibid: p.91). Reading romance
novels also serves to confirm their image of themselves as an intelligent
individual who are yet deserving of occasional pleasure and escape from
responsibilities that are willingly accepted and dutifully performed (ibid:
p.114). On top of that, the act of holding a book act as a ‘do not disturb’
sign for the women as it is their own time to relax from doing the domestic
surroundings by being mentally in the romance novels (Moores, 1993: p.47). Reading
romance novels helps the women to isolate themselves from the reality by
escaping figuratively into a fairy tale where heroine’s similar needs are
adequately met that substitute the women’s that require emotional sustenance
and solicitude (ibid: p.93). Women that isolate themselves by reading romance
novels also make them feel a general sense of emotional well-being and visceral
contentment whereby such a feeling is brought by the chance to participate in a
relationship characterized by mutual love and the hero’s ability to express his
devotion for his heroine’s pleasure (ibid: p.70). Therefore, reading romance
novels is a way for women to isolate themselves from the reality.

           

            Moreover, continuation of isolation
is continued with Bull’s academic research in 2007, Sound Moves, which was about how sound and iPod plays a role in our
life. In the iPod era, more and more users are using the iPod as a companion
for them to travel around whereby sound technologies from the Lambretta to the iPod
have enables users to ‘create a transparent but impenetrable wall of sound,
transporting them out into the world while isolating them from it’ (Bull, 2007:
p.7). iPod also reorders the social spaces of the city, giving greater
prominence to the media-generated form of privacy whilst distancing users from
the ‘proximity’ of others (ibid) within a mediated and perpetual sound matrix
whereby each user inhabiting a different auditory world (ibid). An iPod user stated, ‘When I plug
in and turn on, my iPod does a “ctrl + alt + delete” on my surroundings and
allows me to “be” somewhere else,’ points to the empowering potential of us
(ibid: p.9). On the other hand, the use of iPod in the urban
environment is associated with the ‘warmth’ of the communicative process,
disconnection and isolation with ‘chill’ whereby iPods are connected through
the use of our mobile technologies whilst simultaneously disconnected from the
physical world through which we move by transforming the space of reception
from chilly to warm passing through urban spaces as it is able to isolate
themselves from the reality (ibid: p.13). Thus, the iPod users main function of
using it was to block away the noises of the urban places such as subway (ibid:
p.30) and people are not likely to approach for a chat when in the public
spaces as it gives off an appearance of not wanting to be disturbed (ibid:
p.32).

 

            Furthermore, there is also a
continuation within the research on the dailiness in everyday lives. In
Hobson’s academic research in 1980, she discovered
that the traditional media such as radio and television played a role in the
housewives’ daily routines. The radio for the most part, is listened to during
the day while they are engaged in domestic labour, housework and child care
(Hobson, 1980: p.93). Moreover, in some cases switching on the radio is part of
the routine of beginning the day; it is, in fact, the first boundary in the working day
(ibid). Radio also function as a series of punctuation marks in the work routine
of the women (Moores, 1993: p.37). For instance, Radio 1 also helps to
structure the time sequences of the work which women perform while they listen
to the radio as they constantly refer to time during the programmes on Radio 1
(ibid: p.94). During the mornings, radio provided the main companionship to
household chores before the TV was switch on (ibid: p.36)Besides, listening to
the radio programmes that the women selected primarily function as ‘easy
listening’, a background noise while they do their housework or look after the
children (Hobson, 1980: p.97). Women also watch early-evening television in
their everyday life as a secondary to the domestic labour which they perform
(ibid: p.102). The television programmes that seems to be enjoyed by the women
in their everyday lives are comedy series, soap operas, American television
films, light entertainment and quiz shows and films (ibid: p.98). Thus, radio
and television provides the dailiness of every day for the women.

 

            The continuation of dailiness in everyday
lives also occur
in Scannell’s academic research in 1996, Radio,
Television and Modern Life, where Scannell found out that the programmes
that the media, specifically radio and television are being structured into our
daily lives. For instance, breakfast radio and television organise itself as
such in all its ways of attending to the present moment and producing it as the
moment it is: breakfast time, time-to-get-up, to wash, shave dress, clean
teeth, snatch a bit to eat and off to school, factory, shop, office or wherever
for different kinds of person such as adults, children, women and men
(Scannell, 1996: p.149). Different significances are picked out in different
morning media services, each with their own involvement-structures, but all
combining to produce the sense of the meaningfulness of days as that which we
start with each and every day (ibid: p.150). The broadcasting companies which
mediums are radio and television follows the movement of time through the day
in a way of that-time-through-the-day is zoned from breakfast time to bed time
(ibid). These zones are a port of the underlying way in which broadcast
services are arranged to be suitable to the time of day for its audiences to
watch or listen at what time and in what situations (ibid). On top of that, the
business of broadcasting is in the direction of production of a daily service
day by day and every day (ibid: p.152). This makes the radio and television to
be always ahead of itself planning the schedule for us, the viewers and
listeners of radio and television, when we consume the radio and television on
the day (ibid). The broadcasting companies are already predicted beyond the day
in order to product for us the day that we are in it (ibid). Therefore, the programmes
are programmed according to the dailiness task of our everyday lives.

 

            The dailiness in everyday
lives is
continued with Bull’s academic research with the iPod culture. Music, for
Adorno, also enabled the subject to go beyond the cruel nature of the social
world by combining him or herself more fully into the everyday, through the
consumption of music (ibid: p.5). The Apple iPod is symbolic of a culture in
which we increasingly use communication technologies to control and manage our
experience of the urban environment (Bull, 2007: p.4). Moreover, iPods are
following the users move through their daily life, listening to their iPods,
using their mobile phones and driving their automobiles (ibid). The iPod does
appear as a privilege in one’s private life whereby the iPod users often desire
to liberate themselves from the recognised cruel rhythms of daily life: the
daily commute to and from work, the brutal and unavoidable working week,
working month and working year (ibid: p.7) as Lefebvre agreed, stating that
music ‘brings compensations for the miseries of everydayness, for its
deficiencies and failures’ (ibid). For instance, an iPod user, Joey, starts off
her day with listening to music where she created a morning mix playlist on her
iPod every day when she’s on the way to take subway (ibid: p.30). Hence, iPod
provides the medium for one to isolate themselves.

 

            However, there
was a shift within the research on the emergence of new technology. The
traditional media, old technology, from Hobson’s academic research in 1980
which is about the radio and television in women’s lives (Hobson, 1980: p.93). Hobson’s
academic research focuses on traditional media, radio and television, on its
impact of those 2 mediums in the housewives’ lives (ibid). She did interview
with housewives that was taped in which she inquired about patterns of domestic
labour and domestic on the radio and television (Moores, 1993: p.36). The
interview was done on how the traditional media, old technology, radio and
television on the housewives (females) could play a role in their daily lives. Then
a shift was done by conducting a research on the new technology being
introduced is done by Gray’s academic research in 1992, Video Playtime, on the emerged of video cassette recorder (VCR) on its
usage in homes (ibid: p.1). The study of VCR was conducted on the gender and
the use of the VCR (ibid: p.23). There were 30 females being interviewed on
their behaviour on the use of VCR in the family and the conversations were
taped (Moores, 1993: p.92). The respondents mainly describe about their life
experiences and thus the research contained vast amount of data of the
respondents, women’s everyday lives specifically on work patterns and
organization of their occasional periods of ‘spare time’ as well as inside the
family home (ibid).

 

            Furthermore,
Bull’s academic research on how the iPod and sounds affecting the lives of
people shows that the research shifted to study on the new technology that was
emerged. Bull studied on ‘auditory’ aspects such as ‘sound systems’ in
automobile and also iPod on how it affects the surrounding environment especially
in urban areas (Moores, 2012: p.37). Bull conducted his research by
interviewing individuals on the usage of the iPod in their everyday lives and
how it is doing an impact in the society. On top of that, Miller and Slater
academic research in 2000, The Internet:
An Ethnographic Approach, a research on the Internet in Trinidad on the
usage of Internet for the Trinidadians (Miller and Slater, 2000: p.1). The
study of the usage of the Internet of the Trinidadians was to understand the impact
of Internet such as dynamics of
objectification (how people engage with the Internet by recognizing their
own culture or identity), dynamics of
mediation (how do people understand the features, potentialities, danger
and emblems that can be perceived by the new media), dynamics of normative freedom (how do people the freedom and its
normative forms in the Internet) and dynamics of positioning (how Internet
media position them  in terms of
political, economic and social) in society (ibid: p.10).

 

            In conclusion, there are many other
patterns that could be discussed in this essay but I chose on discussing on
these few aspects, isolation, dailiness in everyday lives which are the
continuation and emergence of new technology as the shift. These 3 key aspects
have the most impact in our daily lives as it was discussed in the essay above.
Isolation as discussed in the essay do indeed play a vital role in our daily
lives until today as a medium to isolate ourselves from the hustle and bustle
of the city as we, humans, would want to have our own privacy from time to
time. Dailiness in everyday lives is discussed in the essay as an everyday
routine using the mediums of radio, television and iPod in accompanying in our
daily lives. As for emergency of new technology, it is discussed as there are
new technology being introduced in the world, researches would take the
opportunity to study on its effect on our lives. Technology is evolving every
time and it is worth to note to study on the effects on the new technology is
our lives. Thus, the research that was studied does bring an impact in our lives
and to understanding its impact in our society.