There processing industries, food processing industry, pharmaceuticals aspect, dairy

There are many effects of
heat transfer issues to our world. One of it include the rising of demand for
water usage during sweltering climate. According to Christopher, water is an
extremely regular used to cool down other metal structures susceptible to heat
failure such as bridge especially in a heat waves. This causes serious
shortages of water supply in many affected areas. This additionally can add to
flame restraint issues for both urban and rural fire departments. On the other
hand, the rise in water temperature during heat waves will cause the
degradation of water quality and a lot of bad effects for fish and aquatic
populations It
can likewise prompt the death or lop-sidedness of numerous different organisms
in the lake, river and sea ecosystem. High temperatures because of high heat discharged
are also additionally contributed to unlimited algae growth, causing fish death
in rivers and lakes. Thus, the extremely heat released from industry area will
contribute to water pollution. Besides, according to Dan, the continuous of raising
of heat also support to the more usage of energy consumption. This because
human will use more energy for cooling purpose to withstand hot weather. Hence,
the combustion of fossil fuels will become more frequent due to the high
demands and more heat will be generated to the environment.


Heat exchanger is one of the common heat
transfer application used in industry. Sadik (2002) stated that heat exchanger
is an efficient and productive gadget device constructed for the efficacious
heat transfer between two fluids with various temperatures. The material which are
often used to isolate the fluid is a solid wall which must be a strong divider
with function to prevent mixing and in direct contact between two fluids. Heat
exchangers are very wide used in biochemical processing industries, food
processing industry, pharmaceuticals aspect, dairy industries, chemical plants
and also petroleum plants industry. The use of heat exchangers in bioprocess
industry is popular which is from high temperature pasteurization to low
temperature which is freezing.

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Based on Padmakshi (2013), got some type of
heat exchangers which include shell and tube heat exchangers, plate heat
exchangers, plate & shell heat exchangers, plate fin heat exchangers,
dynamic scraped surface heat exchangers, phase change heat exchangers and
double pipe heat exchangers.


In fact, P. Raskovic (2010) mentioned that the basic principle of heat exchanger is only
involved the heat transfer between two fluids with different temperature. Both
two fluids are brought in a very close contact with each other however there are
separated from mixing by a physical obstruction which like solid wall. The
temperature of the both two fluids will soon reach to an equilibrium
temperature through the heat transfer. The energy and heat from each fluid is
exchanged or transfer from the hot to cool media and no heat generate which
mean no extra heat is added or removed. The heat exchangers must be designed and
build to suit for all the cases of heat exchange and the performance also need
to be the best suited for all conditions due to the not constant of heat in the
heat exchange process and the not constant of the heat amount of the fluids. Furthermore,
the design also need to be like the heat exchange is at a specific rate needed
by the condition of the process. Originally, heat exchangers are created and designed
to be additional oversized for the cases of fouling occur. The surface of heat
exchanger is also needed to be additional large for sufficiently substantial to
carry out operations. For example, Heat exchangers can be used in food industry
as a process of cooling down various products. Kravanja (2012). Products such as hazelnut pastes and
various types of food pastes also required to be cooled down first or heated up
before proceeding to the further process. The type of Heat Exchanger used is a
Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger. The Scraped Surface Heat exchanger is designed and
created for processing different high viscosity materials for example food and
heat exchanging of a many variety of heat sensitive products such as fruit


Fouling of heat
exchangers in industries is a long term operational problem that compromises
energy recovery and environmental welfare. According to H. Muller (2009),
fouling in flow channels, tubes, or other parts in processing equipment may
create a lot of major operating problems such as loss of heat transfer,
under-deposit corrosion, increased pressure loss, and also flow
maldistribution. These problems may contribute many negative impacts on cost,
safety, health, and environmental aspects. Meanwhile for environment aspects,
fouling of heat exchangers will cause the increased of safety hazards released
during operation and cleaning, increased in the consumption of electricity,
water, fossil fuels, and other resources that are needed for cleaning,
increased environmental hazards and emissions. The environmental issues related
to the released of harmful chemical fouling inhibitors, method of disposal of
chemical wastes, CO2 emissions and land or water pollution
cause by operations of heat exchanger also have been pointed out.


Routbort et al.
(2009) stated that used nano?uids for industrial
cooling could result in good energy savings and resulting emissions reductions.
replacement of cooling and heating water with nano?uids has the more potential
to conserve energy. Furthermore, using nano?uids as agent in closed-loop
cooling cycles could also save more energy than using water as coolant. By this
way, the consumption of energy can be decrease efficiently, and less natural
sources will be used to generate energy. The
replacement of nanofluid also able to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide
(CO2), nitrogen
oxides, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from industry area. This can help to save environment
from the released of harmful gases and greenhouse gasses.



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P. Raskovic , A. Anastasovski, L.
Markosvska,V. Mesko (2010), Process integration in bioprocess industry waste
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Routbort, et al., Argonne National Lab, Michellin North America, St. Gobain
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Sadik Kakaç and Hongtan Liu (2002). Heat
Exchangers: Selection, Rating and Thermal Design (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN