The Stroop effect is a reaction of interference in the
reaction time of a task. When the name of a color (eg: “yellow”, “green” , “brown”)
is printed in the color that is not indicated by the name (ex: the word “green”
is printed in brown ink instead of green ink). It would take much more time and
are more likely to cause errors when reading them than when the color matches
the name of the color. This effect was developed and first published in English
by John Ridley Stroop in 1935. The effect has been used to create a
psychological test that is widely used in clinical practice and investigation.
In the experiment, first, we show a test that all are color
blocks to participants and record how long the participants spend. Second, we
show them a paper that printed the color of the word which was printed by the
different color. In the end, we compared with the time of two experiment, we
found that the second one we record is longer than the first one, because our
brain have conflict to deal with the color what we see and at the same time
understand the name of the word’s meaning. However, the ink of color is
different from the name. Therefore, our brain will be confuse to how to said
it, leading to delay the time.
dimensions of stimulus (color and word’s meaning) is parallel, and processing
speed is different. Reading the word is faster than the color, therefore, the
word will be first working. When the color of the word and color is same, it
will promote to name the color. On the other hand, if the color is different,
it will interfere the naming of color.
The Stroop effect has been widely used in psychology. Among
the most important uses is the creation of psychological tests based on the
Stroop effect permit to measure a person’s selective attention capacity and
skills, as well as their processing speed ability. It is also used in conjunction
with other neuropsychological assessments to examine a person’s executive
processing abilities, and can help in the diagnosis and characterization of
different psychiatric and neurological disorders.
For example, the Stroop effect can help to strengthen our
reaction , left brain and right brain. Because when we read the words, your
right brain try to said the color, however, left brain insist on reading the
Researchers also use the Stroop effect during brain imaging
studies to investigate regions of the brain that are involved in planning,
decision-making, and managing real-world interference.
We can read the meaning of words quickly . It is already an
automated process, because we knew it before. Therefore, when we change to read
“color”, the ” meaning” will disturb our original cognition, and make our
reaction time longer. The reason is the parts of our brain deal with the color
and word’s meaning are different.
However, if we don’t know the character at all, the result
will be different and simple. For example, if a person totally have no contact
with Korean, he/she will read the word’s color smoothly without interference.
There is an interesting experiment call “How To Catch A Russian Spy”. In the
Cold War period, CIA wants to catch a Russian spy, but spy has an authentic
American English. SO they used Stroop effect that the character is Russian.
Finally, only the spy spend more time to read the Russian part because for
American people who didn’t know Russian he/she only can read color. But for the
spy, like the result of Stroop effect, his/her native language interfere brain
to transform the language and said the word’s color.