The streamflow of Colorado River is highly allocated. The
over-allocation challenges the demand and supply of its water consequently
challenging the resources at its basin. Due to the imbalance in the demand and
supply, the water security at the basin of the river is highly dependent on groundwater
reserves. During droughts, the quantity of groundwater reduces rapidly with the
effects being felt much in the seven states in the basin of the river. Drought
as a natural calamity is not preventable. Therefore, there is need to have
control measures to be able to survive the drought with sufficient resources
which is possible through proper analysis of the case and proposal of best ways
to cope with the situation. This paper studies the security status of the
groundwater in previous droughts and the threats to the states whose allocation
relies on the water. The paper, therefore, evaluates the case and the related
threat to the water security with a goal of arriving at accurate and valid
inferences that can get used when getting solutions to the problem and
maintaining a high supply of the resource that will sufficiently meet the
The paper uses the data by for Space Research Center, University
of Texas which contained the report of their analysis of the average changes of
the water levels of the river in times of droughts up to 2013 (Scanlon,
Zhang and Reedy 9900). The study area spans across the basins
of the river including states such as Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado. The upper
basin of the river runs along the upriver of Lake Powell while the lower runs
the lake’s downriver.
The study by the Space Research Center, University of Texas
uses Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites to assess the
state of the river at different times as specified by their research period.
The method gets advanced through the reconstruction of Total Water Storage
changes that traditionally got studied through ground monitoring and manual
collection of data for modeling the results in the report. Therefore, the
observations were done through assessing the depletion of the total water
storage and the correlation between the depletion and the soil moisture storage
together with the surface reservoir in the lower and upper basins of Colorado
River. This research analyzes the inferences made from their observations (Castle, Thomas and Reager 3).
Changes in the groundwater levels are beyond human control.
According to the study, wet and dry cycles of the groundwater result from
natural responses and irrigation pumping. The conclusion was based on the data
obtained on gravity and the level of groundwater. In other words, the effect of
water use on the level of groundwater is not as evident as that of natural
factors. Natural factors vary the water input with an impact that cannot be
regulated. The level of water in the surface reservoir determines the time
through which the water will remain available and the variabilities expected in
the available amount.
The water budget of the covered zones was analyzed using the
data from Prism Climate Group in the time frame of the research to evaluate the
validity and credibility of the data by the Space Research, University of Texas
(PRISM Climate Group) last assessed in
2016. The results showed steep drops in the water levels in times of droughts.
The monthly changes in the storage as observed by PRISM got compared to those
by GRACE and the error margins observed. The results were similar with a
significant drop during seasons of drought.
The results were closely linked to the data used since the
inference shown relevant results. The data was used assess the water levels in
the different seasons across the years under study and the various demands for
the resource by the regions depending on the river. The results display the
levels as intended and give observation on the reasons for the observations.
The article and the data sources used by the authors met
their defined goals. In the study by Scanlon,
Zhang and Reedy used as their data source, the effect of drought as a natural
occurrence are outlined as the main reason for the insecurity in the quantity
of water getting to the lower basin of the river. The key aim of the research
was to study the implications of the data provided by the satellite views on
the sustainable availability of the resource to the states allocated Colorado
as their water source. The defined goal got met since the conclusions gave the
effect of drought to the availability of the groundwater and the impact to the security
of the resource.
The paper is well structured with no deficiency
in the statement of their conclusions about the research issue. However, the
researchers state that the chief threat to the security of the water is the
drought whose source is not controllable while the introduction expresses the
over allocation as a threat under research. The conclusion, therefore,
contradicts the original idea put across during the development of the research
topic. The question that remains lingering in the review is the effect of human
usage of the resource on the security of the water in the Colora