The union of the working class would start a revolution. A revolution that should lead to their emancipation. And as Marx saw the Paris Commune, he felt that it is not enough that the working class gets hold of the state as there is no point in reforming or taming capitalism—a structure that is rotten. The working class cannot make capitalism work for them thus the only way to deal with it is to smash it.
Seen by Marx during France’s war against Prussia, the conservative bourgeoisie, fuelled by their antagonism against the proletariat, intended to crush the workers so they did not supply them food nor water. Thus, an important revolutionary moment had occurred when the working class, in order to gain money, joined and were able to dominate in number the National Guards, making them an armed working class.
From corruption to life, the emancipation of labor and the interests of the working class were finally represented by a government, the Commune. Not only were they able to break their chains from religion and the military, they also stripped the privileges (e.g. higher income) of those in higher positions of public service. The commune signalled a new life for the workers with the abolition of class property and replacement of individual property. The means of production became a device for free labor and the wealth created from labor became the wealth of the many during that time.
Still, although the worker’s political institution strived to reorganize a more democratic and inclusive society, women (who also played their role in the Commune) were not able to gain the same democratic rights received by men. Nonetheless, the Commune is a necessary political framework for socialism to take place. Just like how capitalism is important for communism to happen. But, the Commune did not last long as it was opposed and eventually destroyed by the French bourgeoisie.
Even in his critique of the Gotha Program, Marx tackled the necessary control of political power of the working class (dictatorship of the proletariats) to break free from the chains of capitalism and change the ownership of the means of production from few to many. It is important to point out that in the final stage of capitalism, labor becomes something that is good. The idea is that a society from capitalism should transition to socialism then develop to communism. Referred in his work as co-operatives, people will unite and create a new mode of production for their society.
Socialism is a human invention of political system by and for the people with the intention of changing the political and economic order through collective action for the better life of the many. Property of the wealthy few will become the property of the society, and what the working people have labored can be used by themselves, rather than exchanged. According to what Marx wrote on the features of socialism, people are to be awarded what is equal to their contribution of labor and productivity to the economy, those who do not work and contribute gain nothing. Another feature he stated is that people are to have free access to goods and services of their society that is able to meet with their needs. It is the society that will perform the functions of the state. People should not believe in miracles nor the state (military despotism) but in their abilities to meet their demands.