The Federal Republic of Germany is composed of sixteen states, the so-called Bundesländer or Länder. Germany has one of the highest population densities within the European Union. The proportion of physicians in the population is around 3.4 per 1,000 inhabitants. Germany has one of the best and quality based health care services in world. It has the highly decentralized and self-governing system run by different players. German statutory health system is recognized as one of the prototypes of modern health system configurations. Since its introduction in 1883 by the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the guiding principle of the German health system has been solidarity among the insured. Solidarity manifests itself both on the income side and the provision side of statutory health insurance: all insured persons, irrespective of health risk, contribute a percentage of their income, and these contributions entitle the individuals to benefits according to health needs— irrespective of their socioeconomic situation, ability to pay, or geographical location. In this pooled-risk system, people with high income support people with low income, young people support elderly people, healthy people support people who are sick, and people without children support people with children. Currently services offered by the statutory health insurance include promotion of health, prevention of disease, early diagnosis of disease, treatment of disease, and right for funeral benefits. The key elements of this social insurance system are (I) nonprofit sickness funds that insure about 90% of the population and (2) regional associations of physicians (Kassenarztliche Vereinigung) that provide patient care for fees negotiated with the sickness funds.(Simon 2016)
The German health care system is divided into three main areas: outpatient care, inpatient care (the hospital sector), and rehabilitation facilities.
Outpatient care: – outpatient care mainly consists of doctors who having private practices or self-employed, dentists, physiotherapists and others in their own business. Most doctors and dentists have a “Kassenzulassung” (statutory health insurance accreditation), which certify them to treat all people who having statutory health insurance.
Inpatient care: – In Inpatient care all the people can be get treated at hospitals whether they are public or private insured or self-paid. Big public hospitals are either belongs to state or health ministry. Charity-run hospitals are mainly functioned by organizations like the Red Cross or religious groups. Private hospitals which are also expanded widely across country, which are mainly used by private insured people. They are chain of hospitals spread across country. There are also smaller clinic chains and also specialized clinics for specialized treatments.
Rehabilitation facilities:-Rehabilitation facilities are mainly for people who are seriously treated with intense therapy or medical conditions and mainly drugs and alcohol addictions, where treatments are provided to help people to regain independence and improve their performance. Treatments including physiotherapy, psychological care and help patients to how to use medical aids and appliances. Patients who come here are mainly after a hospital stay, for instance following surgery.