The arctic tundra is found over the northern hemisphere (North Pole) and extending south across parts of Alaska, Canada, Russia, Greenland, Iceland, and Scandinavia, Taiga. This biome has long cold winters and brief cool summers and has low precipitation and dry winds which makes it a desert-like climate.Therefore, it is hard for plants to grow in Arctic tundra because it is it’s very cold and snow cover the ground for most of the year. The plants that do grow are small and low to the ground (Active Layer) are lichens, mosses, sedges, grasses since their roots are very small; also, there are not many trees in the Arctic tundra because of the very cold temperatures. The article, Arctic Tundra Biome, states “It’s a layer of permanently frozen soil called permafrost, which lies about 25 to 95 cm underground. Permafrost acts as a barrier to tree roots, so little trees can grow above it. It can’t even be penetrated by water, which is why the soil above permafrost gets very soggy in summertime, when bogs, lakes, and marshes lie on the land.” A talik is a layer of year-round unfrozen ground that lies in permafrost regions which regularly happen underneath shallow lakes and streams, where the profound water doesn’t freeze in winter, and in this way the soil underneath will not freeze either. Tundra soils are formed at high latitudes and permafrost needs to be within 100 cm of the soil surface known as, “Gelisols”; however, a few threats to tundras that can dramatically affect the environment and atmosphere are, The dissolving of the permafrost as a result of global warming which could profoundly alter the variety of species who are able to live there, air pollution can cause smog clouds that can contaminate lichen which is an important food source for many animals, and Oil spills can kill wildlife which can hugely damage tundra ecosystems; nevertheless, the arctic tundra is a beautiful place with many variety of plant.