“The quite important for health administrators and knowing how

more you know, the better prepared you are to lead in healthcare.” (Dunning,

Finally, a high-quality
healthcare administrator should stay informed and up-to-date on various things
related to his job. This includes medical advances, new laws, and new
regulations for healthcare facilities. They can do this by going to new
conferences and acquiring new training. This will allow them to fulfil their responsibility
of making sure the staff knows about the most recent technology and practices. Healthcare
administrators can also stay informed and up-to-date by looking into private
training like healthcare administrations schools. 7

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Hiring is
another area in which health administrators can boost their effectiveness.
Hiring good-quality employees who adapt to changes easily will help them in
keeping the operation running smooth. This is because they can deal with
difficult situations as they come up and follow official procedures in new
situations. Leading by example is a way to help the staff become happy and
comfortable. Happier staff means “happier patients and fewer toxic issues from
arising in the work place” (Dunning, 2016).  By leaving the office and getting involved
with daily activities, healthcare administrators can create better
communication and relationships with staff. 7

Time management
is also quite important “to ensure deadlines are met, procedures are up-to-date,
and employees and patients are satisfied with their experience” (Dunning, 2016).
 Health Administrator have responsibilities
among many different facets. Without good time management, health administrator
will fall behind on different areas of their work. 7

Teamwork is
also quite important for health administrators and knowing how to work with
others is crucial in a healthcare setting where there are many departments and
employees to work with. It is not possible to effectively oversee the operation
of an entire medical facility without relying on other people. This means that
a health administrator who cannot work with others cannot fulfil his responsibilities
and roles effectively. 7

8. To fulfil
their responsibilities, healthcare administrators must know how to do their job
as effectively as possible. There are many ways in which they can do this. For
example, by being transparent and accountable. To be successful as a healthcare
administrator, relationships must be developed that are strengthened by trust
and harmony. These relationships might be with patients, board members, medical
professionals, or other administrators.  These
relationships cannot successfully develop if the administrator in question is
being dishonest and unaccountable. 7


Another way in
which healthcare administrator can learn from their past mistakes is in
instituting practice drills. Practice drills give people an opportunity to
“spot problems with processes and equipment” (Saksewski, 2014). This is a great
way to find out what went wrong with a procedure. Practice drills are part of Crisis
Communication Planning, a method by which people can learn to effectively
communicate during a crisis. Communication is difficult in a crisis without
prior planning and this can cause deaths, hence Crisis Communication Planning is
a way in which health administrators can fix a lack of preparedness and lower
the potential damage.  8


9. A good
healthcare administrator should be able to learn from past mistakes and do
better next time. If a healthcare administrator keeps repeating the same
mistakes, they will not be able to fulfil their roles and duties effectively.
One example of how to learn from mistakes is in learning from the mistakes made
during the US Ebola crisis. In one case “Two nurses at Texas Health
Presbyterian Hospital in Dallas presented with confirmed cases of Ebola. Both
treated Thomas Eric Duncan, the Liberian man who contracted the virus prior to
traveling to the US to visit family. Even though these caretakers wore
protective gear while treating Duncan, it has been reported that protocols for
the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) were inadequate to prevent
transmission of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) to the nurses.” (Saksewski, 2014).
In response to this the CDC created new guidelines for equipment and procedures
to lower the chances of nurses being infected with a disease they were
treating. 8


social media is quite useful in general patient/public education. Social media
platforms like YouTube, Twitter, and Flickr allow for the public to be educated
in an accessible, user-friendly manner. An example of this is “the world’s
first live-tweeted heart operation by the Memorial Hermann Northwest Hospital
in Houston” (Adams, 2016, p. 36). 6

Recruiting for
research is another example of the efficiency of social media for facilitating
interaction. Recruiting through social media allows for “ease of access to
potential research subjects, increased participation in studies, and decreased
rates of attrition as a study progresses” (Adams, 2016, p. 35).  6

facilitating interaction is something that various social media applications
allows health administrators to accomplish.  Doctor-to-patient and patient-to-patient
communities are platforms that enable direct consultation and discussion
between doctors and patients. These communities have the perceived advantage of
empowering patients, giving medical/emotional/lifestyle support, and help
patients to do more things on their own. Furthermore, these communities also
have the advantage of both professional and peer knowledge in one place. 6

control and incident reporting are another way in which social media can be
used effectively. Social media can be used to acquire information about quality
of care which in other circumstances might go unnoticed and unknown. Using
social media is generally a low-threshold practice and hence allows many people
to participate in information-reporting on a much larger scale than was
previously feasible. 6

There are also
various examples of how social media can be used to collect information form
patients and the public. An example of this is disease surveillance. Social
media can be used to monitor the spread and severity of diseases in real time.
One example of this is “the Netherlands Institute for Public Health and the
Environment, which is developing programs to mine posts to community platforms
(forums) in real time and create visualizations such as word clouds” (Adams, 2016, p. 32). 

There are
various examples of how to effectively distribute information to the public and
patients. Health institution profiling is one example. By establishing a
platform, health organizations can create virtual ‘business cards’ which allows
them to send out information speedily to wide audience. Health authority
messaging is another example. Social media allows health authorities to keep
the public informed about current events and news that could affect their
health. For example, natural disasters or accidents with toxic chemicals. 6

7. Health
administrators should play a key role in using social media to interact with
people in an effective manner. This is because social media has the potential
to be an immensely useful tool that can allow health administrators to do their
job far more effectively. The combination of “the scale of reach to potential
audiences, speed with which information is shared and responded to, as well as
the ease of combining different information formats (i.e., text, image, video)”
(Adams, 2016, p. 27) is extremely useful for “distributing information,
collecting information, and exchanging information” (Adams, 2016, p. 28).
Effective social media use can also help to increase patient participation in
both personal care and governance of care. 6


5. Dealing
with the media properly is a vital part of a health administrators job. An
important part of communicating with the Media is too create trust for the
health services. This is because “the media plays a vitally important role in
the transparency of the management” (Dellve, Jacobsson, & Wilmar, 2017).
The news media plays an important role in transmitting ideas about different
organizations. Healthcare administrators are responsible for dealing with the
media in a way that promotes open, honest, and effective communication. By
using an authentic approach, managers can reduce the risk of hard media
pressure or turn it into an opportunity for gaining stronger commitments and a
stimulating challenge. 4


 A toxic and unsafe working environment is not
only harmful to the staff, but to everyone in the workplace (including
patients). Some ways to prevent bullying include developing a code of conduct,
enforcing equality of opportunity for everyone, instituting a zero-tolerance
policy towards bullying, and creating bullying awareness programs. It is
incumbent upon the Healthcare Administrators to deal with other aspects of
workplace safety in a similarly effective manner. 5

6. While some
administrators may be under the misconception that they only need to provide
good quality healthcare facilities to patients, this is not true. The
responsibilities of a healthcare administrator also include a responsibility
towards the staff under them. Healthcare administrators have an obligation to
provide a safe and healthy working environment. This is a responsibility that
has many facets. For example, failing to provide adequate workplace guidelines
can have the effect of failing to prevent actual workplace violence from
occurring and can cause incidents to escalate and worsen the situation. Another
example would be failing to adequately combat threats and bullying in the
workplace. This can create a stressful or even dangerous environment and
decrease their working efficiency and even allow physical injury to happen. 5


When training
students to be professional, the usage of educational milestones send a strong
signal that professionalism is considered important. Furthermore, medical instructions
must maintain appropriate and conducive environments to encourage professionalism.
Being negatively influenced by teachers and other faculty members who are poor
role models for professionalism is a potential danger for potential health
administrators in an inappropriate educational environment. On the other hand,
the benefits of professionalism to patients, staff, and medical organizations
has been documented extensively “through empiric studies in the medical and
social psychology journals, leadership and human resources manuals, as well as
modern quality and safety literature.” (Brennan, 2016). Therefore, health
administrators should be taught professionalism as an important responsibility
so that they can be better at their jobs.  1

There are a
multitude of ways in which professionalism can be effectively taught. Having
colleges and other educational institutions elevating professionalism as a core
attribute to be taught to prospective administrators is one way. Various US
educational regulatory bodies like the American College of Graduate Medical
Education and the American Association of Medical Colleges have “elevated
professionalism as one of six core competencies that must be taught,
inculcated, and assessed during undergraduate and graduate medical education.
Satisfactory performance is required for graduation and board certification.”
(Brennan, 2016). 1



2. One
responsibility that is important for health administrators in the workplace is
professionalism. This is because professionalism causes trust between
administrators, patients, and society. This is crucial because “the smooth
functioning of a modern healthcare system cannot occur in the absence of trust”
(Brennan, 2016). With inadequate amount of trust, patients become dissatisfied
and resentful. Furthermore, low trust can also cause suboptimal medical
outcomes and inefficient medical care delivery. It is the job of health
administrators to advance the needs of their patients. They can do this by
behaving in a professional manner. By attaining “integrity, accountability,
motivation, altruism, empathy, and the pursuit of excellence through lifelong
learning” (Brennan, 2016), health administrators can increase and justify trust
from both patients and society at large. 1


3. The roles
of health administrators are not completely fixed and immutable. They can
change depending on the circumstances the healthcare administrator finds
themselves in. One example of changing circumstances causing administrator
roles to change is health care reform. One important aspect of healthcare
reform is focused on “establishing a new relationship between professionals,
notably the medical profession, and the state.” (Hunter, 1996).  New managerialism can make professional
groups (such as healthcare administrators) feel like they are being attacked.
However, these new management styles occur within a context of swift economic
and social change. “It is not possible to predict what the impact of such
change is likely to be on health services in the future or on those who provide
them.” (Hunter, 1996). If healthcare professionals cannot recognize that their
roles are changing, they will not be able to adapt and realize that the results
of healthcare reform will not necessarily be negative for them. 2


4. Depending
on the conditions present in the workplace, healthcare administrators can have
different perceptions about their various roles. For example, a lack of
recognition for their managerial role can make Nurse managers feel more
negative about themselves and hence negatively effect a nurse managers
motivation and commitment for that role. Less motivation and commitment leads
to less effective performance. The roles of nurse managers are also rendered
more difficult by issues such as a lack of adequate equipment. If the roles of
managers are rendered less prestigious, less lucrative, and more difficult,
then the net effect is too decrease the numbers of people interested in
management positions. Perceptions of the role of managers influence the reality
of how many people choose to become managers. If the various issues that
negatively effected health administrator perceptions were fixed, there would
then be a beneficial effect of more people wanting to go into health administrator
jobs. 3


These three statements
are the testimonies made about nurse managers in a survey done in Mexico and
Peru. They are an example of how some health administrators do not have the
knowledge required to fulfil their roles and responsibilities. 3 This is a
problem that should be dealt with. Hence, this paper will deal with the various
problems caused by a lack of knowledge regarding different roles and
responsibilities among health administrators in the workplace. Roles are the
functions that health administrators must perform as necessary part of their
job. Similarly, responsibilities are important duties that health
administrators have towards their patients, their subordinates, their
superiors, and the community they’re a part of. A lack of knowledge can cause
many problems for health administrators and lower their efficiency. The problem
for health administrators is that they may not know of the various roles and
responsibilities that are inherent to doing their job effectively. Furthermore,
even if they do know of these roles and responsibilities, they may not know how
to perform and fulfil them in a competent manner. It is important to inform
health administrators about how to properly perform all their roles and
responsibilities because a lack of proper knowledge regarding their roles and
responsibilities causes a detrimental effect in their job performance.

“Internet use we don’t know that so well, it an opportunity to use it”.

“I think human relationships because
we want to be as good or want to be as scientific as that we have forgotten
that the focus of attention is the patient”. Mexico.

will tell you what I see; I think 80% do not know how to use the computer”.

1. Peñarrieta-de
Córdova, Castañeda-Hidalgo, Acevedo-Porras, Rangel-Torres, González-Salinas,
& Garza-Hernández (2014) study found the following: