The I would ever need to be on the

article provides an in-depth model of what transition portfolios should look
like for students. There are a variety of team members that meet to discuss
beneficial techniques to help a child with multiple disabilities transition from
task to task throughout the day. Portfolios include; personal information, who
is involved with each meeting, medical information, if they have specific ways
they need to sit, adaptations/supports, forms of communication, etc. Jeff would
often use hand signals or sudden movements to alert those around him if he
needed something, if something was wrong, or if he was uncomfortable. The
overall goal of the transition portfolio is to allow anyone that may work with
Jeff, the opportunity to be up-to-date with all the needs, supports, and
services he receives. There should be a great deal of valuable information in
each of the students transition portfolio, but if there is not a lot of
information, getting through the day could be challenging.

      I really enjoyed getting to know the
content of this article. The information is very beneficial for all teachers,
staff, and administrators working with a student that uses a transition
portfolio. The overall goal with the portfolio is to put the least amount of
stress on the child so they can easily go about their day. If you are unsure of
how the student communicates, then the student may become agitated and have a
behavioral outburst. The article reminds me of being like an IEP plan. The
portfolios and IEP plans have related categories and offers support/instruction
for each person that will be working with the child at one point or another
throughout the school year. I have been able to look over a variety of IEPs,
but I have never been able to look at a transition portfolio. I would enjoy
looking at one in case I would ever need to be on the transition team for a

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1.      Downing,
J. E., & Eichinger, J. (2003). Creating Learning Opportunities for Students

with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 36(1), 26-31. doi:10.1177/004005990303600103

Learning to manage a classroom that interacts
with students that have severe disabilities can be a challenge. The article describes
a variety of ways to provide students with severe disabilities the most effective
learning strategies. First, teachers need to find what worked in previous
years, the strengths of the student, and their needs. When creating lesson
plans, more information is better than less. There will be a space for further
instructional strategies, that will be used to provide what materials you will
need to help serve the students’ needs and goals. Make sure to use age-appropriate
materials, engage the student, and look for the student’s strengths rather than
the weaknesses. Throughout the lesson, think about what the student can do to help.
Can they collect papers, answer a question, etc. The overall content of the article
describes a variety of ways to adapt materials and how to include all students
in the lesson.

was a very informational and helpful article and very helpful. Most teachers
may struggle with adapting lesson plans to specific needs, this was a great
resource to use and adapt lessons. I think every teacher needs to know how to
adapt lessons in case they are covering a classroom, or switch job positions
that requires them to work with a student that has server disabilities. During
my general education field experience, the special education teacher had to
attend meetings and the school did not have time to find a substitute, so the
children remained in the general education classroom. My cooperating teacher
was caught off guard because she did not plan for one of the students to stay in
the classroom during a math lesson. With the changes that have been occurring
with including all children in the least restrictive environment, all teachers
should provide further instruction, materials, adaptations, etc. This was a
great learning experience for myself as well because I know to always prepare
and adapted lesson plan to accommodate each student.

2.      Engleman,
M. D., Griffin, H.C., & Griffin, L. W. (1999). A Teachers Guide to

Communicating with Students with Deaf-Blindness. Teaching Exceptional Children, 31(5),
64-70. doi:10.1177/004005999903100510

The authors provide a great deal of
information regarding ways to communicate with children that have deaf-blindness.
To gain more knowledge about the students, find a way to communicate with the
family members, PT, OT, other teachers, and other professionals. This information
is very valuable and will help to provide ways to categorize what is the most
important thing to do for the child, so they are able to communicate to one
another. Finding different communication devices for the student will help tremendously
and could allow them to actively participate effectively in the LRE. Teachers
need to enforce and motivate the use of assistive technology/devices to help
the child gain the most information from classroom instruction. Teachers need
to know about the assistive devices, where to find them, what they do, how they
work, what devices work the best, etc.

This article was a fantastic way to
get thinking about what devices I may need in my classroom for students. I was
not aware of the variety of materials and how much they can cost. I would highly
recommend this article to anyone that is thinking about becoming a teacher or
working with children. I have observed a student that had a visual impairment
using a device to enlarge the print of books, worksheets, etc. I have not been able
to observe a student that had deaf-blindness. I would like to look at materials
teachers use to communicate, teach, and assist each child.

Gately, S. E. (2008). Facilitating Reading Comprehension
for Students on the Autism

Spectrum . Teaching Exceptional Children, 40(3), 40-45.

about reading comprehension and working with children on the Autism Spectrum
has always been an interest of mine. Children dealing with ASD can have a
challenging time understanding the reading, following along, and understanding
a character’s feelings. Throughout the article, the author discusses a variety
of teaching strategies to use during reading time. These strategies do not have
to be directly centered towards children on the spectrum, but it gives great
ideas for lesson planning. The examples provided are hands-on and allows the
child to see and better understand what is happening. One example includes a
visual map. The visual map is divided into categories for the setting,
characters, the issue, and main events that happen throughout the story. After
reading the story, the visual map offers a great visual representation that is
used to communicate essential information from the story.  I was not aware of how high the reading
comprehension deficits were among the children dealing with Autism Spectrum
Disorder. I think that using different visuals such as the visual map, picture
walks, goal structure maps, and social stories are a fantastic way to adapt a
lesson for a child with ASD. Using a hands-on learning device has been very
effective, especially for children with ASD.

 I have observed the use of a visual map in a
practicum placement and it was a valuable learning tool for each student. This
could be an activity that gets completed in small groups, individually, or as a
class. I was able to observe a student in a third-grade class that always used
a visual map, even if it was not part of the lesson. I was very shocked to see
the extra effort since it was not required. I gently approached him to ask why
he did a visual map. He told me that it is the way his brain works, and this
provides him with evidence that he attained all the information he needed to
understand the story.

4.      Griffin,
M. M., & Papay, C. K. (2017). Supporting Students with Intellectual and

Developmental Disabilities to Attend College. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 49(6),
411-419. doi:10.1177/0040059917711695

colleges are becoming more accepting of allowing students with intellectual and
developmental disabilities attend college. Colleges are setting up programs to
adapt to the needs of students with IDD. There has been federal funding to accommodate
the needs to transition a student with IDD from high school to a college or
university. Colleges and universities are trying to make the experience as “normal”
as possible. To make the transition and opportunity easier, a few things to
keep in mind include; providing valuable information with resources for the family.
Make sure they are aware of the program, what is expected, and how much support
their child will receive on campus. Allow the students to participate in their
transition plan. If they can, let them decide on their own after hearing their
options. The student will need help with navigation, safety skills, etc. to be
engaged in campus activities. The message from the article tell us that it is
possible for everyone to go to college, it just takes the right support,
resources, people, and patience to make the experience happen.

      Before reading this article, I never
thought of having someone with an intellectual disability attend a college or
university setting. After taking a variety of education classes and reading
journals, I know that anything can happen and with the right support, it will
happen. I think this will provide a great learning experience and allows the
student to feel like a “normal” college student. I want to see more schools
accepting students with IDD and providing them with a great learning
experience. I hope to observe this happening one day because everyone deserves
a chance to make the most out of their life. I think with the support of more people,
we will see this becoming a world-wide focus to make everyone accepted.

Hume, K., Sreckovic, M., Snyder, K., & Carnahan, C.
R.  (2014). Smooth Transitions

Helping Students With Autism Spectrum Navigate the School Day.
Teaching Exceptional Children, 47(1), 35-45.

            The article begins by describing the difficulties some
children with ASD may have when transitioning from one activity to another. Children
with ASD may struggle in understanding verbal cues, so when they are asked to
do something they may just sit there and act like they did not hear you.
Supports are often needed to help create a smooth transition and provide
successful involvement with the class. The article describes ways to identify
transition problems in different students, finding effective strategies to
provide support for the appropriate transitions, this could be promoting
independence for the child. Provide visual schedules so the students know when
it will be time to transition from subject to subject, or classroom to
classroom. Let students know that it is okay to ask for help in all subjects,
everyone will need help at one point or another in their lives. There are different
forms of transition supports for all age levels and should be changed
periodically to adapt to their ages. Auditory transition supports are verbal
cues/warnings to inform students that a change will occur in a specific time
frame. For example, we will stop doing our math worksheet and take our spelling
test in 5 minutes. Making sure all teachers, administrators, and substitute
teachers know about transition supports in the room in case they are ever alone
in your classroom and need direct instruction.

article stresses the importance of implementing support. While determining what
form of transition supports work best for the child, be sure to always use them
to reduce the amount of stress the change could cause to the student. Be sure
to collaborate with anyone that will be working with the students that require
transition supports and discuss practical solutions if something doesn’t work
out. I have noticed in previous practicum placements that multiple teachers use
transition supports to inform the entire class. They have used verbal time
warnings, a schedule that shows what time the class will start/stop for each
subject. They state that these are very helpful with each student and will
continue to use these strategies. I plan to implement these helpful strategies
when I have my own classroom. I think these will be very beneficial for both my
students and myself to help stay on track to get as much done as possible every

6.      Morse,
T. E., & Schuster, J. W. (2000). Teaching Elementary Students with Moderate

Intellectual Disabilities How to Shop for
Groceries. Exceptional Children, 66(2),
273-288. doi:10.1177/001440290006600210

The article provides in-depth
information about helping young students with moderate intellectual disabilities
shop for specific groceries. Some of the students did not have previous
experiences with community engagement. The students were provided with a
grocery list, and money to buy the items. The list used pictorial cues for the
students to know what aisle to look for, what item they needed and then a picture
to show how items should be placed in the cart or basket. The students were taught
how to grocery shop in a one on one lesson with the instructor. The overall
message from the article is that all children can learn, we must adapt/modify
how they learn and what supports they need to learn.

article relates to something that would most likely go on in a life skills
classroom. Life skills are needed to allow students to complete daily tasks
with limited or no help. In high school, I was able to observe in a life skills
classroom and once a week, the class would focus on cooking. The cupboards,
pantry, fridge, and cupboards were labeled with pictures and words of what was
in each space. On the recipe cards, the ingredients were listed in the same
format. Each group had a helper to assist with directions, gathering materials,
preparing the food, and cooking the food. This was an excellent experience and
provided me with tips and strategies for working with children that have
intellectual disabilities.

7.      Ryan,
J. B., Hughes, E., Katsivannis, A., Mcdaniel, M., & Sprinkle, C. (2014).

Based Educational Practices for Students with Autism
Spectrum Disorders. TEACHING Exceptional
Children, 47(2), 94-102. doi:10.1177/0040059914553207

 In the past years, there has been a ton of
research done associated with ASD. The article begins discussing the five
subtypes of ASD and what they are. The five subtypes include; Autistic
Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), Rett
Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. (PDD-NOS).
The article provides a detailed description of what distinguishes each subtype.
The number of students eligible for ASD services has increased every year since
1992. Researchers have not been able to determine what causes ASD, but understand
the prevalence rates are rapidly increasing. The focus of the article is to
find several types of intervention plans that are effective in helping students
with ASD achieve academic success. A variety of services including Least
Restrictive Environment (LRE), must be provided for each child diagnosed with
ASD. IEPs are a great resource for all teachers working with these students
because it gives a great deal of knowledge about how to prepare materials there
are a variety of educational programs to be used, for example the picture
exchange communication system. The picture exchange communication system are
often cards that have a picture on them that represents something they want to
do, what they did, or a response to a question. I think that schools need to
provide a variety of research-based practices for all students. I really
enjoyed reading this article because I did not know about each subtype of ASD.
This is vast knowledge to have for my future career.

worked closely with a patient at my previous job that was diagnosed with
Autistic Disorder. He was not able to communicate very well, he would mostly
grunt when he wanted something. His form of communication was often hard to
read but the facility offered the idea of picture exchange. He loved bright
colors and feeling different textures. We made him a set of yes/no cards. The
yes card was green felt and the no card was red silk. While communicating with
him, we would often ask him yes/no questions, say the word yes, rub that card
on his cheek or hand, then say the word no and rub that card on his hand or
cheek. After repeating this process a few times, he would look in the direction
of the card that told him

Winterman, K. G., & Sapona, R. H.  (2002). Everyone’s Included Supporting Young

Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Responsive
Classroom Learning

Environment. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(1),

the article, the authors describe what a responsive classroom is and how it is
beneficial. The responsive classroom focuses on implementing social skills, and
how to use them in everyday life. This can include morning meeting, academic
choice, and helpful skills to communicate with families. The article also
addresses the importance of using a routine for the classroom. This allows a
smoother transition for both the students and the teacher(s). Finding creative ways
to support each child in the classroom will take time, but it is important to
remember that all students have unique needs and they need to be addressed
appropriately. Keeping on target with Jon’s IEP is very beneficial. Teachers
will meet frequently to address changes that need to be made and find new ways
to support the goals of the IEP. The overall lesson of the article is that all
children can have a valuable learning experience in the classroom, sometimes it
just takes the right teacher to make the most of it.

really enjoyed this article, Jon has a lot of potential and with the
help/support of his teachers, he is making great strides in his academic
career. This was a very beneficial article and will greatly influence my
teaching skills in the classroom.

            As teachers, we need to find ways to support each child.
Jon’s teachers found effective strategies to implement into the activities, so
he could easily understand what would be going on. I know from previous field
work; the classroom teacher would hold a morning meeting to discuss the
schedule for the activities/lessons that would go on throughout the day. This
was very beneficial for everyone in the classroom. Having a schedule was a
straightforward way to stay on track every day. I have not been able to observe
all the ways to have a responsive classroom, but I plan on using these
strategies in my own classroom one day.

Xin, J. F., & Sutman, F. X. (2011). Using
the Smartboard in Teaching Social Stories to

Students with Autism. TEACHING Exceptional Children, (43(4), 18-24. doi:10.1177/004005991104300402

            The article discusses a variety of ways to teach students
with ASD how to learn new things. For example, a student wanted to play a game,
so the teacher found an instructional animation and displayed it on the smart board
for the student to see and they were able to learn the rules of the game. When
using the smartboard, we need to keep a few things in mind. When creating
direct instruction, we need to know what the target behavior is, and function
is, develop appropriate ways to teach all children of all skill levels. Using a
PowerPoint will go a long way, especially when teachers use pictures. Having a
PowerPoint full of words will not help the Child with ASD since they may
already have trouble with interpreting text. Using self-modeling will also help
the students. Self-modeling is when an instructor uses pictures of the children
to model the behavior they want to see the child complete, for example, working
independently. Social stories can also be used with self-modeling to provide a
presentation of how daily activities should go. Using new forms of technology
can be very beneficial for both the students and the teachers.

think this is a great article for providing strategies when creating a social
story and using the smartboard. I think using the Smartboard for social stories
is very effective because it allows children to see what is expected of them. I
think that social stories should be used more often, especially in the primary
grades. I know personally that I learn by visuals and hands-on experience. Unfortunately,
I have not observed the use of social stories in a classroom thus far, but I
think it is a great idea. As a future educator, I will use social stories for
my whole class. I do not want any of my students to feel left out or
uncomfortable during any lesson plan. I will do everything in my power to make
sure I provide my students with a variety of learning styles, so they are able
to gain as much knowledge as possible.