The eyewitness of Jesus. Apostle John the son of

The three Johannine Epistles Letters 1 John, 2 John and 3 John, tend to pose some challenges, confusion, and difficulties to scholars and understanding between its similarities and differences to Fourth Gospel. According to New International Bible Dictionary, the letter of John was first distributed to some of the early churches first before others, whereas the Johannine epistles took some time before all accepted the authenticity. There was an essential part played by the teachings and apostleship of John in 2 and 3 John, which resulted in its canonicity and in view of that, there was this believes among many scholars with numerous facts especially in the aspect of authorship that both the Fourth Gospel and the Johannine epistles are original documents from Apostle John. My intention in this paper is to examine the thematic similarities and divergences between the fourth gospel and the Johannine epistles, the relationship and the disparity of their texts via their gospel authorship, vocabulary, and styleThere are several factors and some indications that point to John’s authorship of Johannine epistles built on eyewitness of Jesus. Apostle John the son of Zebedee according to the unanimous agreement of the early church father is the author of 1 John. “There is no certain evidence among Christian writers of a knowledge of any of the Johannine Epistles before the middle of the second century and the lack of attestation makes us cautious about assuming that there was a solid tradition throughout the second century attributing them to a known figure name John” R.E. Brown. But some of the similar messages from 1 and 2 John were also found in 3 John, confirming apostle John’s authorship of 3 John. And Thomas put it this way, “the similarities in tone, language, thought and situation are such that we may safely conjecture that all three letters came from the same pen.”  M. Thomas. Many assumptions and proposals about the authorship of Johannine has been in circulation during the ancient church, at a point, they come up with different opinion to establish the Johannine authorship – It was an unknown elder among their community, it was one of the apostles John’s follower,Ever before scrutinizing the core and peripheral facts concerning to authorship of the Johannine Epistles, let me first look into some of the essentials suggesting that the author of the Fourth Gospel is the same author as Johannine Epistles. There is similarly basic, monotonous, restricted terminology and smooth style of Greek in both the Fourth Gospel and Johannine Epistle, which suggest a common authorship. More so, there are many theoretical similarities between Fourth Gospel of John and the Johannine Epistle and such theoretical similarities do not occur the letters and others like synoptic Gospel. Examples in Johannine Epistles are Light – 1 John 1:5-6; 5:13, Darkness – 1 John 1:5-6;, 2:8-9; 2:11, Life – 1 John 1:2; 5:12, Truth – 1 John 1:6, 8; 2:21; 3:19; 4:6; 2 John 1, 4; 3 John 3, World – 1 John 2:15; 3:13; 4:4-5, Word: 1 John 1:1 and the correspondence similarities in Fourth you have. 1:4-9; 3:19-21; 5:35; 8:12; 9:5; 11:9-10; 12:35-36, 46, 1:5; 3:19; 8:12; 12:35, 46, 1:4; 5:26; 6:33, 35, 48; 8:12; 11:25; 14:6. These examples of theoretical similarities between the Johannine Epistles and the Fourth Gospel means that the Johannine Epistle comes from the author of Fourth Gospel. The Sermon of Jesus as it was found in the Fourth Gospel also occurred in the Johannine Epistles, which denotes that the author must have been with Jesus so the life and teachings of Jesus influenced him which made him follow the pattern of Christ, which resulted in the Fourth Gospel and Johannine having the same terminology and style with shared ideas. There are important words and phrase appear in the Fourth Gospel but does not appear in the Johannine Epistle, once would have thought that if the authorship is of the same person, the same word and phrase should have appeared in both but for the fact that it is absent proves that was not the same author that write both.Authorship. If the Johannine Epistle were written by discrete personalities with an insignificant connection, or by different authors but sharing only one author, also the amount of agreement is considerably weakened. Moreover, I will try to separate what is theologically distinct in both the Fourth Gospel and Johannine Epistle.  Though many scholars did not accept that both Fourth Gospel and the Johannine Epistle while some agree but nevertheless, they all agree that all the authors emerged from one ‘Johannine School’ or ‘community’. This is perhaps the popular interpretation today. It offers a different sort of steadiness. It does not so much inspire the addition of ‘Johannine theology’ stranded in the documents, as an examination of the diversity from document to document, so that the scholar can try to isolate different elements of thought within the apparent community, and maybe even rebuild something of the community’s history. Apart from the usual arguments concerning the dating of each document, there is no scholars insist that the Fourth Gospel tells us little of what occurred in the days of Jesus. Rather, it organizes a theological story to deal with problems in the church or community or school that ‘John’ is addressing towards the end of the 1st century. It may send some useful pieces of evidence about the historical Jesus but its emphasis is on the church of the era. If this view is correct, then the time span apparently covered by the Johannine corpus is extremely reduced.Equally, if the Fourth Gospel, however stylized its presentation and however, interested its author may be in addressing readers at the end of the 1st century, is nonetheless a faithful witness to what occurred ‘back then’ in Jesus’ time, then the Johannine corpus as a whole distances the first six or seven decades of the church’s life. It is unbearable to contend each doubtful point here. I think it extremely likely that John the apostle inscribed the Fourth Gospel and the three letters that usually bear his name. That he is also the ‘John’ of Revelation (Rev. 1:4) is plausible but much less certain, though there is certainly some sort of personal connection between this book and the other documents of the Johannine corpus. Similarly, the three letters assume specific pastoral circumstances in tangible churches; moreover, however disputed the precise historical context of Revelation may be, few doubt that John is dealing with particular churches (Rev. 2 – 3) towards the end of the 1st century, as those churches find themselves in numerous spiritual, doctrinal and ethical situations but on the edge of methodical Roman oppression. What we have, then, is a sole corpus which takes us from drafts of the very beginning of the ministry of Jesus and the induction of the new covenant, through doctrinal and ethical battles in defined churches, to the last document of what became the New Testament canon, a document that portrays Christianity’s rising battle with the wider world, and in apocalyptic imagery anticipates its ultimate resolution. God himself supremacist, and through the triumph of the Lamb presents the new heaven and the new earth, the home of righteousness.Therefore, the Johannine writings establish a miniature of early Christianity and a miniature of the final important documents of biblical theology. This does not mean that the Johannine writings are so comprehensive that the rest of the NT is hardly needed. Certainly, in some ways the themes defined by the Johannine writings are somewhat limited; John is given to concentrating on a small number of themes in their interaction and difficulty, rather than to forming a wide net. In that wisdom, the Johannine input to biblical theology inclines to be profound rather than comprehensive. However, as the next section shows, themes preserved in various ways in the Johannine writings are often associated with emphasis in the rest of the canon. Not only are there a thematic association with other NT books, but there are many relations with the OT that submit how inner-canonical connections should be drawn. On the other hand, there are many assumptions and suggestions on the divergence that the fourth gospel and the Johannine epistles come from two different authors, such as John’s quality and manner of writing is a reflection of personal and not regular authorship, secondly, the grammatical and thematic disparity shows a discrete author. According to Dodd the British scholar of the twentieth century, he said that when it comes to John’s manner of the gospel, there are some distinctions, which you cannot find in Johannine epistles. More so, talking about thematic, Dodd contend that there is no Old Testament quotation in 1 John, only in (1 John 3:12), whereas John’s gospel contains many quotations from Old Testament, on this ground, it will be hard for one to believe that the same author could have written both texts. However, the non appearance of quotations or reference to the Old Testament in 1 John is perhaps a meaning of the author’s resolution, not his abhorrence to the Old Testament. Finally, 1 John does not have the letter format of 2 and 3 John.When trying to consider or look into the Gospel and Epistles, the first century Johannine will be beneficial in determining John’s authorship. Until we understand the Johannine Believers, we cannot understand the similarities or divergence in style of the epistles. “Johannine Christianity is complex and this must be taken into account when one investigates individual concepts and themes, such as glory, miracles, witness, faith, Christology, and eschatology.” Andrew Mattill. The relationship between the functionality authority of Johannine and Fourth Gospel is based on love, language and in the scope of their ideas. Johannine theology systematizes the amalgamating theological subjects associated to the New Testament literature conventionally accredited to John. While some detractors would say that a complete, intelligible theology might not be within reach, still we can outline those uniting themes that undergird these writings. The Johannine literature comprises the Fourth Gospel, three letters, and the Book of Revelation. While they no doubt share a mutual background, the Book of Revelation is quite dissimilar in terms of genre and purpose. This leaves the Gospel and three letters, two of which are very small and of incomplete theological importance. Johannine theology, therefore, has been attached in the Fourth Gospel and the First Epistle of John.In view of the evidence from the apostle’s witness explanation of Jesus, evidence from John’s Gospel and inner indication in the epistles, similar vocabulary and style found in the writings, and assertion from early church fathers as well as in the canonization process, I believe John the Apostle wrote the Gospel and each of the three Johannine Epistles. These epistles were evidently written to believers and addressed different issues in the church including love, refusing false teachers and encouraging true teachers. The expert of the Elder and his acknowledgment by the community is clearly seen in each of the epistles. Evidence from the early church fathers concerning the authorship of 1 John and minimal sound evidence for substitute authorship of the smaller epistles points to John the Apostle as the author. With little evidence concerning chronology, I believe the Gospel of John has finished prior to the Epistles around and the three epistles followed after. I think that 1 John was written prior to the smaller letters to address and settle the communities receiving of the Gospel and then the smaller letters followed to rid the church of false instruction and inspire them to press on in their faith. More precisely, 2 John was written with caution against entertaining false teachers while 3 John was written to inspire entertaining true teachers, the apostolic representatives. This discloses the two-part nature of the epistles and how they fit as a whole together with the other Johannine writings. John’s authorship, style, and vocabulary have been shown to be even more reliable than the writings of the Gospel of Luke and Acts as well as some of the writings of Paul and as a result, I see no other validation needed to show for Johannine authorship of all three epistles.