The creating a powerful vision of the future. The

The term leadership
is a newly addition to the English language. It has been in

use only
about two hundred years ago, although the term leader, from which it was
obtained,

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appeared as early as A.D. 1300
(Stogdill, 1974).

Researchers
usually define leadership according to their individual perspectives and the

aspects of
the phenomenon of most interest to them. After a comprehensive review of the

leadership
literature, Stogdill (1974, p259) concluded that “there are many

definitions
of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept of
leadership.”

To find
new definitions of leadership has continued unabated since Stogdill made his

observation.
Leadership has been defined in terms of traits, behaviours, influences,

interaction
patterns, role relationships, and occupation of a position.

 

Most
conceptions of leadership imply that at various times one or

more group
members can be identified as a leader according to some observable

difference
between the person(s) and other members, who are referred to as “followers” or

“subordinates”.
According to Janda (1960), definitions of leadership as a phenomenon

involve
the interaction between two or more persons. In addition, most definitions of

leadership
reflect the assumption that leadership involves an influencing process whereby

intentional influence is exerted by
the leader over followers.

The
purpose may be to identify leaders, to define how they are selected, to
discover

what they
do, to discover why they are effective, or to determine whether they are

necessary.
As Karmel (1978, p. 476) notes: “It is consequently very difficult to settle
on a

single
definition of leadership that is general enough to accommodate these many

meanings and
specific enough to serve as an operationalization of the variable”.

According
to Gratton (2007), the new leadership agenda is based on enabling people to

work
skilfully and co-operatively within and across the boundaries of the company.

Leaders
must ignite energy and excitement through asking inspiring questions or
creating

a powerful
vision of the future.

The challenge
for leaders is that such conditions are emergent rather than controlled and

directed.
The old leadership rules of command and control have little effect (Gratton,

2007).

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