The breed and raise children. For example, the first


The United States population in the
first half of the 19th Century grew by about a third every decade. According
to the census data ,  the size of the U.S
population in the 1800. was 5,308,483 while in 1850 the size of the population
grew to 23,191,867. This tremendous growth was attributed to territorial
expansion, immigration, decrease in death rate and increase in life expectancy ,
and  industrial revolution .



Natural growth through reduction
of death rate and increase in life expectancy

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The period between late
eighteenth  and early nineteenth  centuries witnessed tremendous efforts in
health care reforms which established new sanitation measures in urban areas of
the United States. These measures included construction of sanitary sewer
plants to treat waste water, installation of central clean water and
distribution system,   abandonment of barrel waters and draining
swamps  and flooded areas where mosquitoes  bred,  tearing
down abandoned houses, supervising cemeteries and burial practices, enforcing
quarantine of arrived passengers, conducting frequent health inspections. Also
, along with sanitation measures, there were other disease preventive measures
being developed like vaccines.  All these
sanitary measures created a healthier living environment which helped curtail   the
spread of diseases and subsequently reduced the death rate  and increased the life expectancy of the






Natural growth through  births.

Although  the influx of immigrants contributed for
building the American society , the major factor of the population increase in
the United States was related to the surplus of births over deaths. In the
early nineteenth century the American women 
had an average of 7 children compared to 2 children in the beginning of
the 21st  century . This
abundant rate of birth was attributed to limited reliable fertility control measures
and lack of  education opportunities for
the American women. Also, the opportunities for the American women to join the
work force was very limited too, so they had ample time to breed and raise
children. For example, the first colleges and coeducational institutions for
women were established in the mid 19th century.

The impact of the industrial revolution

The industrial revolution at the
time increased demand for skilled workers which shifted population from farms
into the urban areas where the industries were concentrated and workers  trained. This led to increase in productivity
and subsequently increase in wages . The higher wages enabled  people to get married and have children at a
younger age.