The begin its growth as the biggest global cinema

The Indian movie industry, Bollywood,
has come a far way over the last centuries. Early amateur screen images have been
transformed into a vast global economic empire, Bollywood is classified as one
of the largest movie industries in the world, over the course of its growth
India’s cinema powerhouses have made progress in all areas, such as retail
infrastructure, financing, marketing, and distribution of their films. With the
growth of the brand “India” an extreme diaspora has overtaken the international


Globalization has many definitions,
prominently, the movement of goods, capital, technology, and people across
various borders.  While exploring the
globalization of film and the increasing interconnectedness of Indian society
in the modern world, we see a booming economy and in its wave the positive
reception of Indian ideologies and culture. As we come across challenges and
questions regarding global brand building, reaching foreign audiences, and
acquisitions with international players, we can assume that Bollywood’s share
in the global movie market is budding and will require an enormous amount of
effort and funds to surpass the audience’s expectations. To do this, India’s entertainment moguls don’t merely
target the billion South Asians at home, they tailor for export. Attracted by a
growing Indian middle class and a more welcoming investment environment,
foreign companies are flocking to Bollywood, funding films and musicians while
helping India’s pop culture reach a wider audience base.

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Bollywood has utilized the audience’s power of
an “India diaspora” to begin its growth as the biggest global cinema industry. Indian
diaspora continually exists in countries like The United States, the UK,
Canada, and South Africa all representing an enormous market share for Indian
films. During the path towards global prominence various films and movies
gained traction internationally. There have been many changes during the 21st
century when the title of an industry was acquired, after that Indian film has
developed extensively. One such change in the 1990’s that allowed interplay
between the local, national, and global levels. In just under those few years
the industry became an organized business, producers became interested in
creating corporate structures and individuals began pouring money into cinema
as “investments”.


The government intended to
use Bollywood to build up India as a ‘soft power’, believing that they had the
capability of capturing roughly five percent of the global market, initially
starting from two. Kishore Lulls, the CEO of Eros International which is a U.K
listed company, releases over 30 new Bollywood films each year and truly believed
that the governments target could be easily and effectively achieved. Secondly,
in terms of funding and capital, the industry kept receiving investors funds
from abroad. For example, film companies like Eros, India Film Company and UTV
have raised almost millions of pounds from recognized investors on the London
Stock Exchange and western companies took significant equity share in these.
Thirdly, in terms of the tech boom, for many years’ numerous Indian producers
have used special effects technologies and training from abroad, particularly
from Hollywood. Lastly, India has made significant progress in terms of cast as
well. Hindi movies have now more and more memorable stars and notable people
working on international movies, particularly again in Hollywood, whereas also
more and more artists from aboard begin to work for the Indian movie industry.

represented the 15% of India film production and justified the 40% of India’s
income, with an annual growth rate of 10 and 20%. The main cause of this is
that Bollywood was the second biggest domain of development in India. The
revenues in global markets were skyrocketed. Between 1998 and 2005, the
revenues from abroad cable and satellite broadcast were increased by 450% and
in 2009, they represented the 15% of the whole revenues. Since 2010, Bollywood
has become the biggest foreign exporter at the entertainment market of the USA
and the most successful movies were being viewed almost up to seventy-five cinemas
in the USA.  

The proceeds of
these movies can be compared to those of some of the Hollywood movies. There
are Bollywood movies that have achieved a total gross margin higher than 50%
than the international. Furthermore, the movies have gathered two to three
times higher international revenues in comparison with national bestsellers. Overall
Indian economic growth may have slowed but the entertainment industry is
in good health, contributing Rupees 50,0000 crore to the economy, equating
to 0.5% of GDP in 2013. The sector also supports 18.8 lakh jobs.


As the the
government began to make overseas entertainment earnings tax-free, media firms
have focused on foreign markets more than ever. India’s movie exports jumped
from $10 million a decade ago to $100 million last year, and may top $250
million in 2020. That greatly surpasses Hollywood’s $6.7 billion in overseas
profits last year. But as the market has grown, even multinationals like Sony
and Universal have taken a new interest in Indian entertainment. Since New
Delhi began to ease rules on foreign investment in 1991, such companies have
set up shop in Mumbai, targeting both domestic and international markets.
Indian entertainment executive Amit Khanna, playing off of the “Pax
Britannica” of the British Raj, calls the spread of Indian pop culture a
“Pax Indiana” an empire of song-and-dance dramas, Indi-pop songs and
Hindi television soap operas.


With a move into global
territory, the concept if Indian cinema as a ‘national third world cinema’ has
been both compromised and protested. This invites new labels such as ‘Asian’, ‘global’,
and ‘transnational’. These labels help broaden understanding of the changes
that have taken place within the industry. When perceived as ‘third world
cinema’ films are analyzed as instruments of social change and homogenizing all
works. On the other hand when seen as ‘first world’ some argue that owing to
its commercial studio base and Hollywood style productions it no longer can
hold its old model. Following Rajadhyaksha’s concept of ‘Bollywoodization’, he
argues that “Bollywood’s world
profile is suspect as its impact and presence in the West has been
non-cinematic, or rather extra-cinematic. Bollywood’s marginal success
as a recognizable world cinema is therefore regarded as purely a by-product of
marketing and political multiculturalism, as the cinema fails to satisfy world
cinema’s taste for high modernism, realism, genre, serious subjects and
political engine.” This suggests that Bollywood can only push further
boundaries if the west expands its restrictive criteria of what is good and bad
in world cinema.


The most recent and
arguably the most appropriate category used to explore and analyze current
manifestation is that of ‘transnational’ cinema. Popular Indian cinema has diffused
and become infused with other cultures through a variety of ways. Not only has
it exposed itself through aesthetics and subject matters but also has promoted
and filmed abroad in seemingly exotic foreign locations. Such as the hit Race, filmed in South Africa or even Salaam Namaste, filmed in Australia.
Despite fears of appropriation and ethnocentrism, scholars have been
investigating cross-cultural and inter-cultural play within these ‘transnational’
films. Transnational cinema “self-Orientalizes through an ‘auto ethnographic
gaze’ consciously exploiting, eroticizing, parodying and critiquing both home
and foreign cultural conventions. It has enabled Bollywood cinema not only to
negotiate Indian identity among multiple identities, but also to dismantle and re-mystify Indian-ness.” (Carriere).