The as a tool to promote an event, this


The music industry

By Alan Dong

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Live performances

and Marketing

of the most important aspects of live performances is promoting before the
event. Marketing is required to promote the event/artist, and the most common
form is through the use of the internet. Social media sites are used as a tool
to promote an event, this is because they are easily accessible to a large
audience compared to offline marketing.

of social media that are used by artists to promote events include, Facebook,
Twitter, Instagram and Band-camp. Facebook is essential to organising live
events for artists as it allows an audience to keep track of certain events
that are taking place, as well as the bands and artists that will be appearing
at these events.

allows the artists to post tweets, pictures and details for tours and events,
it also allows fans to directly tweet to the artists, creating a significant
connection which could further boost the relationship in a live performance.

Instagram allows artists to post pictures and videos from their events which
also boosts the relationship with their fans. Band-camp is an online service
which allows musicians to host individual songs, EP’s or full albums online, it
gives an option for the artist to release their music for free, which in turn
will gain an artist a larger audience.

up/Health & Safety

To set up for a live performance, a
stage plot is required as it shows exactly what goes on the stage. A sound plot
is required from the sound engineer so that microphones and monitors are placed
correctly. The stage must be swept and platforms and risers must be clarified
with the artists. Chairs and stands must be set up after and lastly sound gear,
microphone stands and monitors will be placed.



There are two separate organisations
that license different set of rights in the music industry. PRS (Performing
rights society) and PPL (Phonographic performance limited).


PRS collects and distributes royalties
for live music events that have been performed or played. PRS is made up of
songwriters and composers who license the use of their member’s musical


PPL have a similar job, but they focus
on licensing the use of recorded music to be played in public or used on the
Internet, on behalf of record companies and performers.


Record companies

When you hear the term record label,
the names that most likely come to mind first are Universal, Sony and Warner
music group, this is because these are the major record labels in the world
that control the majority of the music market. The universal music group and
Sony music group control an astonishing 58 percent of the market.

labels are traditionally the companies that market recorded music and music
videos. Record labels engage in a wide range of functions in the music industry
including new artist recruitment and development, which is otherwise known as
A&R, music publishing, and copyright enforcement. Small independent
record labels provide an alternative outside of major record labels and will
often sign upcoming or small artists, some examples of independent record
labels are matador records and XL recordings.

is one of a record label’s most important functions, as public awareness of the
brand is the way that they make their money. Record labels also make money
through the use of retail distribution, such as selling the musicians CD’S or
selling the music online through streaming companies like Spotify and Apple
Music. The record companies would also use copyright management and digital
rights management so that they have the right to prohibit or allow use of the
music in third party content.


versus independent record companies

difference between major and independent record labels are huge as major record
labels offer deals to the world’s most successful music artists and have the
power to distribute music of the artists they sign to millions of consumers in
a matter of hours or days. They sign a range of agreements with their artists,
including licensing and distribution agreements, which give them a part of the
artist’s earnings worldwide. Some major record labels also have sub-labels that
specialise in publishing, recording and promoting various music
genres such as country, Latin, jazz and hip-hop.

the other hand, some small independent labels barely make enough money to keep
their lights turned on, as they do not have a cooperate backer. Independent
labels have smaller distribution networks than big labels and usually reach
consumers one at a time. However, independent labels have a strong reputation
for choosing the new big trends and for giving chances to unknown artists who
eventually become international sensations.


Music publishing companies

companies look after music rights and provide a number of services for
songwriters and composers. They are different from record companies because
they deal with the finished songs rather than the recordings of them. As a
result, they can take a long term approach to an artists career because they
don’t have other costs to cover.

publishing companies have effective staff or professional managers who promote
the songs. The publishers also provide proper administration of musical
composition, register copyrights and file necessary information to performing
right organisations. An important responsibility of the publisher is to protect
and enforce the exclusive rights that have been granted by the songwriter and
the copyright laws.

property laws are divided into several sections, including copyright, trademark
and patent laws.

– The laws provide the artist with the right to produce the song, reproduce the
song, perform the song and publish the song

– Provide protection for any combination of words, designs or symbols used by
the artist.


Different types of publishing

         •        Individual songs – The artist gives the
copyright of their work to the publisher , this means that the company will pay
a portion of the money made over time from the song to the artist. These deals
are typically easy to work with.

         •        Exclusive songwriter – The artist agrees
to hand over the rights to everything they create during a certain time period.

For example a year or two. The publishing company will then pay the artist a
predetermined amount of money per week or month regardless of what is done with
the songs. This kind of deal ensures a steady pay check for the artist.

         •        Co-Publishing – This means the artist
co-owns the copyright of the song with the publisher, which is a good option
for artists who don’t want to completely give up control of their work.

         •        Administration – Deals are usually
longer, but they can help songwriters because someone is always trying to make
compositions for them. With this deal, the publishing company do not own the
rights to the artists work, but they do have the right to administer it,
meaning that they can license it where they want.

         •        Foreign sub-publishing – Similar to
administration deal, but includes foreign partners. Sometimes publishers will
work with other companies to represent the artists work where the partners are

Artist management

managers are responsible for bringing together the people and projects to meet
the goals of the artist and the record company. Getting sponsorships for
musicians require connections with brands and businesses, therefore artist
managers have to reach out and establish relationships with sponsors. There are
four types of income participants: songwriter and publisher for songs / artists
and record companies for masters. However if the artist is not signed to a
publisher, they will own the publisher share of 
income. If the artist is not signed to a record label, they will own
what would be the record company share of income.



the outside, merchandising looks simple, but in reality its much more complex.

The bigger a artist gets, the more a tour merchandising company will want to
take the job of merchandising for the artist.


merchandising companies are extremely different from record companies because
they work with the artists and designers to come up with items to sell, they
then produce the items, handle the sales of the items ,and pay a percentage to
the artists. Most artists receive 30% of the sales of the merchandise. The
merchandise companies will then have to pay for hall fees charged by venues.


and Manager’s rights

have three main rights:


Reproduction rights

the artist to record their songs on a CD, for a film, or to put on the internet


Performance and communication rights

rights that are used by an artist when they broadcast their music on TV or
radio, play a song live or in a recorded form, and when they put their music on
the internet. These rights are important if a radio station wants to broadcast
the artists music, or when the artist wants to do a live cover of a famous


Adaptation rights

rights are used when someone rewrites an artists song but with different
instruments or when someone adds new parts to an artists song.


is important because it protects the artists work and allows them to get money
for their work.

piece of music is protected by copyright, and can be broken down into three
important parts.

Copyright in the music

Copyright in the lyrics

Copyright in any sound recording of the music


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