The are consequence of the characteristics of organizational design,

The article of Kenan Spaho, which name is “Organizational
Communication and Conflict Management”, is focus on conflict management as a
field as well on managers and their role in the conflict management. However,
in our study, we will only focus on the relation between conflict management
and communication part.According to article, practical experience shows that there is no
communication without conflicts. Sometimes, conflicts can be useful, as they
help to make correct decision, although they might represent a huge obstacle to
an organization and its business.             Communication means to transfer
information from sender to receiver. It is thought that receiver get the
message. Organizational communication is the process by which individuals
stimulate meaning in the minds of other individuals by means of verbal or
nonverbal messages. This is important for organizations not to face a problem
during the working process.            According to Spaho, there are
several types of conflicts. However, he explains by considering two sides,
personal and organizational. For personal, Conflict is a process of social
interaction and a social situation, where interests and activities of
participants (individuals or groups) actually, or apparently, confront, block
and disable the realization of one party’s objectives. In addition, conflict is
a process where person A deliberately makes an effort to prevent efforts of
person B with an opposing action, which will result in frustrating Person B to
achieve his goals or satisfy his interests. For organizational, Organizational
conflict occurs, as actors engage in activities that are incompatible with
those of colleagues within their network, members of other organizations, or
unaffiliated individuals who utilize the services or products of the
organizations.    Personal causes come from
personal characters when people interact. 
There are four groups of causes. Bad estimation of a person, the sides
in conflict are not objective and understand the behavior of opposite side, as
they wish to hurt the other side and its interests. Errors in communication,
the errors occur when the information is lost between upward and downward
communication, due to inadequate understanding. Distrust among people in the
organization, trust is the foundation of good interpersonal relations, as it
develops and consolidates the system of values and confidence to each other.
Distrust and suspiciousness create a good foundation for a potential conflict.
Personal characteristics, some people start conflict, because of their personal
disliking. When people with completely different personalities need to work
together, conflict cannot be avoided.

causes of conflict are consequence of the characteristics of organizational
design, limited resources and characteristics of organizational systems like
planning, decision making, etc. Some aspects of organizational causes of
conflict are; dependence in work activities, when the one of an organization
cannot start the one’s job because the other member has not finished his/her
job. Differentiation of organizational units and incompatibility of operating
goals, the specialization of organizational units (manufacturing, purchasing,
finance, sales, etc.) manifests in everyday work as differences in working
manners, goals and culture. Sharing limited resources in an organization are related to of power and
influence, with each department trying to obtain a larger share. The
insufficiency of resources can also be a foundation for a potential conflict. Compensation system, conflict can start because of inconsistencies, which
means that the employees in different departments might be rewarded by using
different criteria. Organizational indistinctness and neglect, unclear organization of work or delegation of
authority can cause conflict. If obligations and responsibilities of employees
are not clearly determined, conflicts are unavoidable    

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