The and keeping records from various Andean cultures and


            The Inca had a vast empire from the
tips of Ecuador, all the way down to the middle of Chile, and with this great
empire was a wide civilization. 
Communication between each town was very important to the Incan Empire
as it was responsible for the distribution of food between wide spreads of
land. To do this, the Inca had used a method of storing numeric information
called Quipu.

             A Quipu, or knot-record, was a very unique way
of communicating information and keeping records from various Andean cultures
and Inca Empire dating back to the 3rd millennium BCE. Quipu’s would
have different colored strings hanging off the base string meaning various
things, usually to indicate how much of a material they have collected or how
much they were spending, and each knot had a corresponding numerical value. The
Quipu’s mathematical method was based on a decimal positional system, the
highest number would be located at the top of the string and the lowest number
would be at the bottom. The Incan mathematic decimal system is almost identical
to our current system in use today. They had intervals of 0 to 9, 10, 100,
1000, and even up to 10000. Some quipu had as many as 1500 strings tied to the
base string, and are woven in different ways, suggesting that this too, had a
meaning. The position of each string is a critical part of their system too.
Depending on how far each space was away from each individual string, would
determine the priority of that information.

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             Scholars have recently predicted that the
Quipu was being used as some sort of memory aiding device, and that the Inca
Empire was progressing towards narrative recording, becoming a viable
alternative to written language just before the Empire collapsed. On the Incan
roads there would be post towns located approximately every 20 Kilometers, and
messengers would be positioned here to receive the Quipu’s. These Incan road
messengers were called “Chaski” and would travel up to 280 kilometers in a
single day using a relay system that the Incan Empire built. The Chaski would
commonly drop off the Quipu with an oral message to maximize the Quipu’s
potential for information storage. Since the Incan People did not have writing,
it was necessary to have Quipu to govern the empire. At Cuzco, Machu Picchu,
there were special government officials who could read Quipu called
“Quipucamayoc”. Because of Quipu, Incan Emperors could understand events
anywhere in the empire and could communicate to anyone in the empire instantly.
With this, the Quipu could record: imperial conquests, royal blood lines, census
data for Incan Provinces such as males, females, young people, old people, population
count, married individuals, un-married individuals, tax, accounts, store
information, livestock, land Measurements, army Size, astronomy, specific times
and dates, and basically, anything to do with numbers. What made Quipu’s
popular was the fact it was lightweight, and you could record massive amounts
of info on it without the worry of it being too heavy. This was key because the
Chaski had to travel vast distances across the Incan Empire in a single day. The
Incan Empire’s society revolved around the Quipu because it gave order to The
Empire by recording key information about the Population, taxes and recording
food production, then having to calculate the right amount of food for each
Province, and even to each person depending on how hard they worked.

            So why is all this relevant to
humanity? Because the recording of mathematics helped build their society, and
it has helped build ours today. Since the Inca had a very busy society, they
needed something to use to keep information of everything they did. To keep up
with the rapid growth of their empire, they used mathematics. Math was used in
the Incan’s everyday life.  They would
use it for: how much of a certain crop they have harvested, how much taxed they
have payed, how much people live in their family or how many married ones are
living with them.

            Mathematics was their main source of
collecting information; In this day and age, its quite similar. with the
distribution of money on how hard you worked or with the record keeping of tax
collection, mathematics helped build our society like it did with the Incan
Empire. We see mathematics in our everyday lives, such as: counting your coins,
looking at a pattern on a quilt, measuring something like time or data usage,
people working on construction, symmetry, probability like gambling or even
tossing a coin, statistics, geometry like finding the right angle to hit your
golf ball, even in music when listening to each beat. Its all math; And with
the advanced technologies and society we have, we use it without even thinking
about it.

            On the opposite side of the
spectrum, we have gotten so far developed into mathematics, that it has
increased our understanding of knowledge so drastically we are creating
languages from it like physics and chemistry, opening our understanding to new
things. In the 21’st century, mathematics has been developing our technological
standards, and influencing our society. 
Without mathematics, we wouldn’t have discovered much of what we know
and love today. Smart phones, computers, cameras, and other such technologies
wouldn’t have been created or as efficient without mathematics. Aside from
this, mathematics also helps develop the society as a whole.  Mathematics in some field of study such as:
politics, law, engineering, architecture, human resource management, and
business is a valuable thing to understand, if not a necessity to do so. Since
mathematics is used in almost every profession, it helps improve the living
standards of people around the would.

            How is math important to humanity?
Because it has drastically changed the way we see the world today.   The literal meaning of mathematics is
“things which can be counted” now you can cerebrate that counting has vital
role in our every day life; just imagine that there were no mathematics at all,
how would it be possible for us to count members of the family, number of
students in the class, dollars in a pocket, scores in a hockey game, days in a
week or in a months or years? On a fundamental level you require to be able to
count, integrate, subtract, multiply, and divide. At a psychological level,
exposure to mathematics avails in developing an analytic mind and avails in
better organization of conceptions and precise expression of phrenic
conceptions. At a more general level, far away from dealing with the higher
mathematical concepts, the paramountcy of mathematics for a prevalent man
underpinned. A mundane man is being increasingly dependent upon the application
of science and technology in the day-to-day activities of life, the role of
mathematics has indubitably been redefined.

             In conclusion, Mathematics has advanced the
evolution of our knowledge and our current understandings of the world around
us. It has helped build ancient society’s from the ground up, to giving us new
knowledge about things we didn’t even know existed. We now live in a time of
extraordinary and expediting change, an rapid phase of development. Our
knowledge, implements, and ways of doing and communicating mathematics
perpetuate to emerge and evolve. Calculators, too sumptuous for mundane use in
the early eighties, now are not only commonplace and inexpensive but more
reliable and faster. Quantitative information available to constrained numbers
of people a few decades ago is now widely spread through the world wide web.


“Neglect of mathematics works injury to all knowledge, since he
who is ignorant of it cannot know the other sciences or the things of the world.”
(Roger Bacon, 1214-1294)