The and industrial activities in urban areas around the

The term solid waste is a broad term
that includes the unwanted or useless solid materials produced from
residential, industrial and commercial activities in a specific area. Solid
waste can be classified according to its origin (domestic, industrial,
commercial, institutional and construction), according to its potential hazard
(toxic, non-toxic, radioactive, flammable, infectious, etc.), as well as
according to solid waste contents (organic material, glass, metal, plastic
paper, etc.) (Femi and Oluwole, 2013). Increasing affluence, improving
standards of living, increasing rates of population growth, together with
increasing levels of commercial and industrial activities in urban areas around
the world, are the main reasons for a significant increase in quantities of
waste production. More effective disposal of solid waste is necessary; even in
countries that burn or recycle a large share of their waste and therefore
treatment of ashes resulting from burning solid waste remains an issue
(Brockerhoff, 2000; Proske et al., 2005). Improper solid waste management
causes air, soil and water pollution and is often the result of a lack of
financial resources. The problem of solid waste is very serious in third-world
countries, where 80% of the world population lives and this often relates to a
lack of financial resources (Al-Ansari, 2013). Waste-related diseases are the
main cause for the loss of 10% of each person’s productive life. The present
day municipal solid waste (MSW) generated reaches 277 million tonnes per year
(United Nations, 2010). Low and middle income countries generate 12.2% and
57.1% of that waste, while high income countries generate 30.7% (United
Nations, 2010). This figure is expected to increase to 677 million tonnes in
2025. The percentage of waste generated in high income countries will be 12.7%,
while it will be 16.4% and 70.9 % in middle and low income countries,
respectively (United Nations, 2010).. Management of MSW involves several
processes, including reducing quantities of waste, reusing, recycling and
recovering energy, as well as the incineration and burial of waste in landfills
(Moeinaddini et al., 2010).

The process of a site selection for
landfill is considered to be one of the most difficult tasks related to solid
waste management systems because it is subject to government regulation,
government and municipal funding, increasing population densities, growing
environmental awareness, public health concerns, reduced land availability for
landfills and increasing political and social opposition to the establishment
of landfill sites (Lin and Kao, 1999). Identifying landfill sites is a complex
process where many factors need to be taken into consideration. Examples of
such factors include social and environmental factors, geomorphologic features
and technical parameters. Waste disposal sites must preserve the biophysical
environment and ecology in the surrounding area (Erkut and Moran, 1991; Lober,
1995; Siddiqui et al., 1996). Economic factors, which include the cost of
acquiring land as well as development and operation costs, must also be
considered (Erkut and Moran, 1991; Yesilnacar and Cetin, 2008). Transport
costs, owing to the distance from waste production centers and distance from
main access roads, are also an important factor (Wang et al., 2009).

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Iraq, an Arab country with a population
exceeding 32 million inhabitants, is experiencing rapid economic growth. This,
together with a growing population, increasing individual incomes and the
instability generated by sectarian conflicts, has led to worsening solid Waste
Management issues. Recurrent wars in Iraq have, also, created a lasting
instability, and as a result, the country has become, isolated and failed to
keep pace with the continuous scientific progress of more developed countries.

Waste Management is considered one of
the most complex issues that Iraq currently faces and there are many problems
affecting the Iraqi waste management sector. Decades of war, sanctions,
instability and mismanagement have all contributed to waste being disposed of
in irregular ways. Population growth has also led to more waste being produced,
which has placed a tremendous strain on the infrastructure for waste handling
(Rashid, 2011).

In 2016, Sulaymaniyah city with 702,882 persons produced 220635 (tonnes) of solid waste with generation
of solid waste 0.86 kg/(capita. day) (Slaymaniyah directory of municipality),
It means that about (60.5) tons waste is daily produced in sulaymaniyah Sulaymaniyah
directory of Municipality. There is an absence of modern, efficient waste
handling and disposal infrastructure as well as a general lack of interest
in/awareness of health and environmental issues. Unfortunately, the hallmarks
of landfill sites in Iraq are groundwater contamination, surface water
pollution, spontaneous fires, large-scale greenhouse-gas emissions and
increasing numbers of insects and rodents in/ around the area (Alnajjar, 2013).

This study uses the concepts of the
geographical information systems (GIS), and a spatial multi-criteria decision
analysis should be used in landfill siting because there are powerful,
integrated tools available to solve the problem of landfill site selection.
Decision makers often use MCDA (Multicriteria decision analysis) to handle
large quantities of complex information. GIS and AHP are powerful integrated
tools used to solve the problem of landfill site selection. AHP is a
multi-criteria decision making approach and was developed by Thomas Saaty in 1980 to unify these
multi-criteria in the process of making decision. This method can be used to
solve complex decision problems and as a tool to support decision making. It
uses a multi-level hierarchical structure of objective criteria and
sub-criteria (Ersoy and Bulut, 2009). GIS plays a significant role in a
landfill siting. GIS allows data to be displayed and managed efficiently from
variety of sources, and it reduces the time and cost in the siting process. GIS
may also be used for identifying routes for transporting waste to transfer
stations and then to a landfill site and vice versa (Kontos et al., 2003;
Delgado et al., 2008; Moeinaddini et al., 2010).

In the literature, several potential
landfill sites have been identified among many candidate sites using GIS and
AHP (e.g. Eskandari et al., 2012; Kara and Doratli, 2012; ?ener et al., 2011;
Uyan, 2014).

The objective of this study is to
select sites for an appropriate landfill area of Sulaymaniyah city by using the
integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Multicriteria decision
analysis (MCDA), and also to calculate the required landfill area to cover
generated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) volume for at least twelve years. So,
using these approaches will lead to integrated environmental management, that
are necessary to allow consideration for all components and processes in
environment; their spatial, temporal, and human dimensions; their interaction
and correlation, coupled with social, economic, political, and legal impacts.

For this purpose, fifteen
input layers including water wells, slope, elevation, rivers, roads,
airport, urban centers, land use, agriculture, villages, military area, archaeological
sites, industrial areas, power lines and soil types were prepared and multi
criteria analysis were implemented with geographical information system.