The paradigm of behaviorism emphasizes that individuals acquire knowledge pertaining to a particular stimuli via sensory experience obtained through external information sources, and establishing association in relation to the stimuli with a certain behavioral response. For example, by adequately rewarding and promoting their employees for exhibiting excellent performances, organizations strive to associate hard work and excellence with favorable benefits.
The principle of cognitivism argues that acquired knowledge is a product of cognitive or mental processes, rejecting the paradigm of behaviorism. Congnitivism contends that learning involves active processing of information, associating new and old data in a coherent and cumulative manner. To illustrate, while making a decision pertaining to an ethical, dilemma, individuals draw upon their past experiences and strive to associate them with the current scenario before making a judgment.
The paradigm of experientialism perceives knowledge as being an experience of the established relationship between an individual and some aspect of his or her reality. Experientialism contends that an individual acquires knowledge via participation in the configuration of situations wherein the learning phenomenon is present. To exemplify, in a soccer team a striker acquires the skills necessary for his position by experiencing its numerous aspects while playing on the field.
Constructivism exemplifies the existence of subjective reality, asserting that individual mind acquires knowledge via the virtue of its ability to actively investigate and evolve its own meaningful interpretation of a phenomena. To emphasize, constructivism is actively employed in education, with classrooms motivating students towards exploring concepts by employing scientific inquiry skills instead of regurgitating and assimilating facts.
Social learning postulates that individuals learn observing, modeling, and imitating one another. Knowledge is perceived as being a collaborative construction that can occur in a social setting by the virtue of direct instruction or observation. To epitomize, consumers often tend to imitate others whim they may admire, preferring to buy the same brand.
Andragogy refers to the science and art of adult of learning that strives to understand and support enhanced education of adults. It warrants adult involvement in learning, draws from the ideology of experientialism, and focuses on a problem-oriented approach. To illustrate, intensive and behavioral modification rehab programs incorporate elements of andragogy for achieving an enhanced facilitation.