TermDefinition affected in education. The author provides many examples,

TermDefinition SignificanceDialectDialect is a variety of language unique to specific region or in other cases, a particular social group, marked by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation. Dialect is very controversial in the education system and according to the article, ” The Use of Dialects in Education and Its Impacts on Students’ Learning and Achievements,” dialect speakers are negatively affected in education. The author provides many examples, including students in the Netherlands and African American students. Many Netherland dialect speakers have experienced issues in their education in school subjects, as well as achievements in language skills. Similarly, it has been noted that African American dialect speakers have a harder time learning to read due to their dialect differences. As a result, dialect can be very controversial because the materials in classrooms these days are based on a “standard dialect,” allowing “standard speakers” to often have an advantage over others. http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/html/10.11648.j.edu.20150405.22.htmlIsoglossIsogloss is a boundary that distinguishes the separation between different linguistic features in a region.  The term, isogloss, is reflected in the article, “Appalachian Speech,” by describing that dialect areas in the US, for example, often illustrate the migration of settlers throughout history. In this case, the article provides an example of the major drift of the caucasian population of America, migrating east to west. As a result, this fact reflects isoglosses (dialect boundaries) which as the authors describes, can be isolated in order to determine various regional groups found throughout the US today.https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED130511.pdf  (pg. 23)Standard LanguageStandard language is a variety of language dedicated for the purposes of use by government business, large-scale communication, and education. The article, “The Dialect and Standard Language,” explains the significant relationship between dialect and standard language; how one affects the other. Dialects often turns into a standard language based on the importance of culture in a society. According to the author, when a country becomes highly enriched in culture, one language is given more power over other dialects. As the article explains, the dialect of French in Paris became the standard language in France as a result of culture, centered in the city of Paris.  https://enamsnote.blogspot.com/2015/10/the-dialect-and-standard-language.html Official LanguageOfficial language is a language given special legal status for the use by the government in both business and publication. The article, “Why English should be the official language of the United States,” reflects the importance of the term official language in the US. In the case of the US, the author encourages making English the official language of the US in order to unite Americans and ultimately improve both immigrant and native lives. An official language in the US could potentially save billions of dollars for federal spending in both areas of foreign translators and bilingual educators. The aspect of uniting the American people, as well as improving the lives of immigrants may be one of the driving forces in the future that affect the decision of the whether English will become the official language of the US. https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/dec/31/why-english-should-be-official-language-united-sta/Language FamilyLanguage family is a set of languages related to one another through descent of a common ancestor before history was first recorded. Language families can be very beneficial when learning a new language as described in the article, “Language Families: finding relevance among languages.” The author provides an example within the Indo-European language family. Based on the fact that Spanish, French, and Catalan come from the same branch, if an individual wants to learn Catalan and already has a background in Spanish and French, than this could be accomplished much easier compared to someone who doesn’t speak either language. As  a result of some language families, many individuals have an easier time learning another language. http://termcoord.eu/2015/08/language-families-finding-relevance-among-languages/Language BranchLanguage branch is a set of languages related to one another through descent of a common ancestor in which existed thousands of years ago. In contrast from a language family, the differences are not as extensive. The article, “Indo-European Languages” reflects the term language branch by discussing the various branches of the Indo-European Languages. This language family is very diverse and widely spoken around the world today, including much of the Americas, Europe, and also both Western and Southern Asia. The Indo-European language has many branches such as, Greek, Italic, Celtic, and many more. Each branch has thrived in a different location. Greek, for instance, is predominant in the southern end of the Balkans, the Peloponnese peninsula, as well as the Aegean Sea, whereas Italic is predominant in the Italian peninsula. Although all sets of languages are unique, they all fall under one language family;  Indo-European. https://www.ancient.eu/Indo-European_Languages/Language GroupLanguage group is a set of languages under a branch which share a common origin in the recent past and demonstrate only a couple differences in grammar/vocabulary Many different types of language groups exist today, one of which include the Creole language group comprised of approximately 500 languages. Another group is the indigenous language groups within Northern Australia. According to the article, “Enhancing Learning of Children From Diverse Language Backgrounds,” many people were forced to live in English-only cattle stations and as a result different dialects emerged and they ended up abandoning their original language. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002122/212270e.pdfMultilingual StatesMultilingual states are states that speak multiple languages.Multilingual states are very unique and comprise of many diverse languages. According to the article, “Law, Language, and Multilingual State,” the obligation in multilingual states is to use the official language for public authority, while citizens have the freedom to speak other languages. However the misconception of a multilingual state is that people who live in this type of state often are bilingual/multilingual, but this is not always the case. Similarly, the official language of a state is many times the language predominantly spoken in that state, yet this does not alway stand true, specifically in African/Asian states. For instance in Indonesia, the official language is known as Malay-Indonesian, although the language of Javanese is more popular. https://books.google.com/books?id=BJmrxcWYtYUC&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=multilingual+states&source=bl&ots=RzdI_lDq_5&sig=VW65ABu_6uY1CqDWSfPYxIEahT0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiGoLuIh8zYAhXFUN8KHfgkAo0Q6AEIpwEwFQ#v=onepage&q&f=false (pg. 73)Monolingual StatesMonolingual states are states that speak only one language.The article “World Language Skills Matter for the US National Security,” emphasizes America’s chronic monolingualism and raises three concerns which include lack of cultural understanding, shortcomings in the US education system, and undermining of the US national interest. American monolingualism has caused issues in the US because as the article mentions, Americans have what is described as a negative attitude toward world languages. Although students are required to learn a world language, many often do not use the language outside of the classroom due to a “legacy of misunderstanding globalization.” There is a misconception that the whole world speaks English, which is preventing some individuals from learning/practicing other languages. If monolingualism continues in the US, it could potentially affect the future of the country. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/readersrespond/bs-ed-rr-sept-20170912-story.htmlCreolized LanguageA creolized language is a language that forms as the result of the blend between a colonizer’s language and an indigenous language. Based on the article “Creole Languages,” the author makes a connection about how many languages are spoken in former plantation colonies and affiliated with the slave trade. The notion of “creole” and European colonial expansion are historically interconnected as many creolized languages formed as the result of expansion. Often times European colonizer’s would have a strong influence over the indigenous people. Consequently, many creolized languages were formed with a blend of both the colonizer’s language as well as that of the indigenous people. For instance, the English language adopted many Native American terms as Americans colonized the United States, which includes a blend of both European and Native American vocabulary. http://linguistics.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.001.0001/acrefore-9780199384655-e-68Pidgin LanguagePidgin language is a form of speech which is grammatically simplified and used for communication between speakers of two different languages. Believe it or not Hawaii has a pidgin language of its own, which according to the article, “De-Stigmatizing Hawaii’s Creole Language,” reflects Hawaii’s legacy as a cultural melting pot. The Hawaiian Pidgin English first developed when immigrant laborers from countries such as, China, Portugal, and the Philippines arrived to Hawaii in order to work on plantations during the 1800s and early 1900s. Immigrants used pidgins in order to communicate with one another; one based in English and the other based in Hawaiian. Eventually, the pidgin language developed into a creole, most likely from children who spoke the pidgin language as their first language. https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/11/hawaiian-pidgin-recognized/416883/DenglishDenglish is a variety of the German language combined with the English language. Denglish reflects the influence English has on many countries, including Germany. Germany, in the article, “Denglish Invades Germany,” is trying to prevent the rapid spread of English (due to globalization, the internet, and politics) from “invading” the German language because according to the author, Denglish is a threat to the German language. In the future Germans, especially in the science/research field, are worried that German may be considered a dialect, rather than a language. As a result, Germans are attempting to put up “barriers” on the spread of Denglish.http://www.dw.com/en/denglish-invades-germany/a-411555SpanglishSpanglish is a variety of the Spanish language combined with English words and/or expressions.  Spanglish is a very controversial topic as described in the article, “The Meaning of Spanglish.” Many view Spanglish as a unique language in development, while others see it as a trap that prevents success. Considering that the English language influences the majority of the world, many foreigners have a desire to learn English because they believe it is the language of “upward mobility.” The combination of speaking Spanish and English is essentially a reflection that an individual has accepted to adopt two different cultures. http://www.newsweek.com/meaning-spanglish-136491FranglaisFranglais is a variety of the French language combined with many words borrowed from the English language. Similarly to Denglish, Franglais is a reflection of the influence the English language has on the world today. With English dominating the world in technology, business, etc., French government continues to promote and protect the French language. According to the article, “Language barrier: French resistance to Franglais,” a Twitter frenzy revealed that the French government decided to abandon the English word “hashtag,” and instead replaced it with “mot-dièse.” Although this may be insignificant, in the long run it portrays the concern languages, including French, are facing in the world where English dominates.  https://www.thelocal.fr/20130204/french-language-franglais-culture-paris-english-protect-promoteLingua FrancaLingua franca, commonly known as the bridge language, is a language used for people who do not share a native language so that they may understand and communicate with each other, especially in trade. As described in the article, “Why Mandarin Won’t Be a Lingua Franca,” English is a common lingua franca across the globe, with an estimated 2 billion functional speakers by 2020. According to the author, the odds of Mandarin (Chinese) ever gaining enough influence to become an international language are slim, as a result of English dominance. Thanks to the British Empire, many native English speakers are found across the globe, influencing many people, as well as influencing the internet. However because English is so present, Americans believe they do not need to learn a second language which will eventually affect the future labor force. Therefore, English, as a lingua franca, demonstrates the overall influence the language has worldwide. http://time.com/3585847/mandarin-lingua-franca/EsperantoEsperanto is an artificial language, created in 1887 for international use, by combining different European languages. Many believe Esperanto is a complete fail, which was once intended to become the second language of the world, during the late 19th century. Yet the language has made a return on the internet. Newer generations today are able to use Esperanto daily online. Speakers of the language are keeping the language alive through different platforms of social media, such as Facebook and various chat-rooms. As a result, Esperanto illustrates the idea that some supporters of the language are hoping that if everyone spoke the same language, than ideals, education, etc. would be the same as well. http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20180110-the-invented-language-that-found-a-second-life-onlineEbonicsEbonics is a variety of the English languages spoken by certain African Americans. In the article, “Why America Need Ebonics Now,” the author illustrates the controversy over ebonics in American society. One perspective is that it will introduce inferior English, whereas the other perspective is that it will help close the gap in educating African-American students. For instance, during the 1970’s linguists created a specific curriculum designed to improve the reading skills of selective African-American students. However, this system was not well received because parents were concerned  their children would pick-up improper vocabulary and grammar.  Extinct LanguagesExtinct languages are languages that are no longer in use, but were once used by their descendants. According to the article, “World’s Languages Dying Off Rapidly,” of the 7,000 (approximately) languages that exist in the world today, nearly half are endangered and likely to become extinct; a ratio of about 1 language every 2 weeks. Many regions of the world are experiencing extinction in languages including, Southwest US, Eastern Siberia, North America’s upper Pacific coast zone, Central South America, and Northern Australia. Often times many poorly known languages, such as the ones in the Andes Mountains and Amazon basin, are giving way to better-known languages, in this case Spanish or Portuguese or to dominant indigenous language groups. As a result, this demonstrates the influence dominant languages have around the world, including English, also threatening the survival of many indigenous languages. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/18/world/18cnd-language.htmlIsolated LanguagesIsolated languages are languages that are not related to other languages and thus not a part of any language family.  Basque is believed to not be related to any other language and the origin is still debated about today. According to the article, “Unusual ‘relic language’ comes from small group of farmers isolated for thousands of years,” Basque may have descended from early farmers that isolated themselves from waves of migrations throughout central and North African Europe. Although there is no clear evidence, the language of Basque does not seem to be related to other languages and is a known as a major unsolved mystery. Basque reflects how some languages are formed, in this case from isolation.http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/09/unusual-relic-language-comes-small-group-farmers-isolated-thousands-years