Table [82] 2017 BMW i3 REX (94 Amp-hour battery)

Table 29. Price of selected EVs (FCV, BEV, and PHEV)

Car model

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Range (miles)



2017 Toyota Mirai





2017 Nissan Leaf



30,680 – 36,790


2017 Kia Soul EV



32,250 – 35,950


2017 Chevrolet Bolt EV



36,620 – 40,905


2017 Ford Fusion Energi


21 (all electric)

33,120 – 41,120


2017 BMW i3 REX (94 Amp-hour battery)


97 (all




The reasons
such as lower prices and less need for extensive charging infrastructure has led
to BEVs and PHEVs to be lower hanging fruits for governments to incentivize
compared to FCVs. The introduction of FCVs
is also more complex than BEVs and PHEVs not only because of reasons above but also because of its use of a
new energy carrier which needs not only specific
technology for production but also needs specific technology for storage and
new infrastructure for distribution. BEVs are
fueled by electricity which has had established generation, transmission
and distribution infrastructure for many years. However, as explained in the
following, the support for the deployment of FCV is very important in the
long-term and government should be able to come-up with incentivizing methods
that incentivize BEVs and FCVs at a level degree.

Bigger picture

Some countries
that provide more subsidy to FCVs are considering FCVs and hydrogen mobility as
a piece of the big picture of the widespread
use of hydrogen in a country/jurisdiction’s energy system.

For instance,
Japan not only has targets for the number
of FCVs on the road and number of HRSs developed
but also has target numbers for the number
of stationary FC for residential application. Japan has the target of
installing 1.4 million and 5.3 million small stationary fuel-cells (<5kW) by 2020 and 2030, respectively 76. In other words, the incentive for the use of hydrogen in mobility is a part of a bigger picture which aims the widespread diffusion of hydrogen in Japan's energy system. In South Korea, hydrogen fuel cell was chosen as one of the four promising renewable energy technologies alongside with solar, wind and biofuel. South Korea is advancing research for increasing the efficiency of fuel cells for residential applications 77. South Korea also has an 1190 MW target for stationary FCs by 2029 78. Norway, Sweden, and Denmark have a goal of full decarburization by 2050 62 have partnered to form Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership, SHHP, since 2006. The aim of this partnership is the deployment of FCVs and development of HRS infrastructure to form one of the first regions in the world with hydrogen availability through a network of HRSs. This partnership connects industries, research institutions and local and national government findings from these three countries 79. Although the focus of this work is on FCVs, the application of hydrogen is not limited to transportation sector only. Countries all over the world are planning to introduce the widespread use of hydrogen in their energy systems. This planning is not limited to countries which have allocated higher incentives to FCVs compared to BEVs. For instance, Germany started The National Innovation Programme Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NIP) to support the development of hydrogen energy technologies and infrastructure. This program was a common program of the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI), Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety d(BMUB) 80. NIP seen as a success for Germany, as Phase 2 plan was established (NIP II). This program not only focuses on hydrogen fuel cell application in road, rail, shipping and aviation but also has programs on application of fuel cell combined heat and power systems for household energy supply and installing more than 100,000 fuel cell systems( a total of about 50 MW capacity) for critical infrastructures by 2025. These systems will be uninterruptible and grid-independent 80. But why is it important for governments to allocate incentives in a way that all technologies are supported? BEV, FCV, and PHEV as complementary technologies Although these technologies may be considered as competitive technologies, each of them has its unique characteristics. The complementary characteristic of these technologies can be explained in three areas: Complementary in Energy supply side: The time of charging of BEVs may affect the electricity grid of a country/jurisdiction significantly. This means that if BEV and PHEV owners decide to charge their vehicles in a time of peak demand, the electricity system has to provide more peak electricity generation capacity. Additionally, the widespread use of BEVs and PHEVs in a country/jurisdiction may lead to a need for the upgrade in electricity transmission and distribution infrastructure. However, the time of refueling of FCVs will not have a significant effect on the electricity system as hydrogen can be produced using off-peak electricity and be used at any time without affecting the demand. In other words, there is the possibility of producing hydrogen using off-peak electricity, storing hydrogen and skip producing hydrogen needed to fuel FCVs in the times of peak electricity demand. Although using smart devices that control the time of charging for BEVs and PHEVs, these challenges can be addressed to some extent, having a fleet that is a mix of BEVs and FCVs also makes sense as it can reduce the burden on the electricity grid. In this sense, PHEVs are also useful as most of their driving range is supplied by gasoline. So they can use gasoline in times of peak electricity demand and be charges in times of low demand. 1