Sustainable In addition to this, Pakistan is also a

Sustainable
development is ‘development that improves the living conditions in the present
without compromising the resources of future generations’. It is about growing together, improving.the thinking of others
and respecting the environment.

The
Sustainable Development Goals, also known as the “Global Goals” are build
on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which comprised of 8
anti-poverty targets that the world committed to achieving by 2015. The MDGs,
adopted in 2000, aimed at a number of issues that included eradicating poverty,
hunger, diseases, gender inequality, and access to clean water and sanitation.
Despite enormous progress achieved in the attainment of MDGs, the indignity of
poverty has not been ended for all by 2015.

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On
25 September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly formally adopted the
2030 Agenda for Sustainable,
Development, along with a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169, associated targets, which
include ending poverty, fighting inequality and injustice, and tackling, climate change by 2030
among others.

Pakistan
adopted the SDGs on 27th September, 2015
and was the first country to adopt them through a unanimous resolution of
the parliament. The government has taken numerous steps to be able to achieve
these goals by 2030 such as establishing, SDG support units at provincial and federal level as well
as an SDG secretariat within the parliament. ,,

Furthermore, Pakistan
has also kicked off its Vision 2025
which is aimed to enable the country for joining the Upper Middle-Income Countries by 2025 and then the Top Ten Economics of the world by 2047.
Vision 2025 consists of 5 key enablers
and 7 pillars with 25 goals and is also totally aligned
with Sustainable, Development
Goals. In addition to this, Pakistan is also a part of China’s grand, vision of Road and Belt
Initiative (RBI) through China Pakistan Economic, Corridor (CPEC). RBI is
also being considered as the first regional attempt, towards attaining the SDGs.

·      SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND
TARGETS:

 

Shown in the picture
above are the 17 Goals and 164 Targets (summarized) of the Sustainable
Development Goals.

All the 17 Goals are connected
to UNDP’s Strategic Plan focus areas: sustainable, development, democratic governance and
peace building, & climate and disaster, resilience. Goal Number 1 on poverty, Number 10 on
inequality and Number 16, on
governance are particularly central to UNDP’s current work and long-term, plans.

 

·     
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN PAKISTAN:-

Pakistan was one of the
early nations who committed to declare the 2030 Agenda, for Sustainable Development as a national
agenda by adopting a resolution at the, National Assembly in February 2016.

PAKISTAN’S CHALLENGES:-

The main challenge in
Pakistan is to transform the ambitious 17, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
into provincial strategies, policies, plans and budgets to be able to implement
them efficiently.

1.    
The biggest
challenge for Pakistan is the lack of political will, in a sense that usually
the government is not willing to work for the development for the country
rather they are more concerned with their personal interest as seen in the past
with Millennium Development Goals. But it seems that the government is
dedicated in playing their part in the implementation of Sustainable
Development Goals this time around. Political parties and leaders might agree
with the goals, but do not find them worthy of propagation.

 

2.    
The Sustainable
Development Goals include ‘ending poverty’ and ‘achieving zero hunger’ by 2030.Eradicating
poverty, in all its forms, is one of the greatest challenges being faced by the
humanity. Even though the number of people living in extreme poverty has
dropped by more
than half, from 1.9 billion (1990), to 836 million (2015), too many people are, still struggling to
meet their basic needs.

In case of Pakistan,
the government’s commitment to achieving the SDGs has yet to be translated into
an action plan. The first two goals — ending poverty and achieving zero hunger
— still await approval of a national food security policy.

 

 

Pakistan ranks 79th out of 109 countries according to the Global Food
Security Index, also, it is estimated that approximately 40 % of children under
the age of, five
are underweight, according to a World Health Organization (WHO) survey.

The effects of hunger are not limited to an individual, rather the
economy as a whole gets affected it as iodine, iron and protein deficiencies
result in an annual,
loss of 3 to 4 % of the GDP. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
estimated that 37.5mn people in Pakistan are inadequately nourished. Also, an
estimated 45 % of deaths in children under the age of five are caused by poor
nutrition.

3. Ensuring healthy lives and promoting the well-being for all is also a
goal of sustainable development along with providing every individual with
quality education. The focus of this goal is to put an end to the epidemics of
AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other communicable diseases by 2030.

In Pakistan, the health of mother and child is severely distressed. According
to, UNICEF Pakistan
ranks at the bottom when it comes to infant and neonatal, mortality despite significant
improvements over the past two decades. According to statistics, 44 % of all
children are stunted and 9.6 million suffer from chronic malnutrition. Also,
Pakistan has the third highest rate of infant mortality in the, world. Even though the
situation is comparatively better in the education sector, millions of children
are deprived of education. The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2015
survey found that 20 % of the children aged 6-16 years were out of schools and
the remaining 80 % are not provided with conditions adequate for learning.

 

4. Another major
challenge that Pakistan is facing is the feeble budget allocation, for development. In the
fiscal year 2016-17, provincial and federal governments, have given priority to SDG related
budgets,, but they
must be spent, too, in time,
with maximum multipliers across sectors. The reason of this is not the
lack of capacity rather it is the lack of bureaucratic will. Moreover, even if
proper budget is allocated, it is not utilized properly, for example, in Sindh
52 % of government primary schools are without toilets and 40 % don’t have
clean drinking water. Furthermore, Pakistan is identified as one of the most
vulnerable countries to,
climate change which threatens food, water and energy security. Even the, devastating, natural disasters such
as earthquake and floods have failed to make the government to pay the required
attention and divert resources to respond to the, threats, and risks.

5. Gender Equality is
said to be a ‘distant dream’ as it’s impossible to achieve this goal in
Pakistan. The main reason of which is the ‘cultural impediment’ which includes
the people’s ancient mindset that the society should be male-oriented; also it
is not possible to change their rigid stance on how the ways of their society
should be. This hinders the women from ever getting equal to the men.

6. Lack of
accountability in the country is another obstacle in the development process.
Any person with power can get away with any crime as there is no one who would
hold him responsible for his actions. 
The absence of effective monitoring and supervision has resulted in
rampant corruption which is causing a chaos in the country.

7. Human development
has been eclipsed because of the lack of infrastructural development. Pakistan
lacks the basic infrastructure required for the development of the people and
the country as Pakistan lacks the fundamental elements required for development
such as: sufficient energy, sustained economic growth, just and strong
institutions, clean drinking water and above all income equality.

8. One of the many
problems in Pakistan includes the massive rates of unemployment. As per
pertinent research studies, Pakistan needs to create 2 million jobs yearly to
ingest out-of-work youth throughout the following three decades. The nation desperately requires resuscitating and
growing the manufacturing base to address this unemployment problem.

Keeping the aforementioned
and the various unmentioned challenged faced by Pakistan, it is observed that executing
the SDGs is said to be a colossal test, particularly for Pakistan as it is already
facing a certain degree of political disengagement and is clearly inconclusive about the path
it wishes to take for going ahead.

FINANCING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs):-

 

STEPS TAKEN BY PAKISTAN FOR ACHIEVING THE SDGs SO
FAR:-

In the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) lies the solution to Pakistan’s three, focal challenges: development,
democracy and protection. Execution of the, UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, if perceived
as an incorporated,
strategy, will lead to long-term economic prosperity & human and, environmental
development in Pakistan.

The preparedness of
Pakistan to deliver on 2030 targets is among, some of the top in the world, raising expectations
that it would not repeat its terrible execution of, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
when it missed, almost
all the targets.

As opposed to popular
belief, achieving the SDGs is not an inconceivable accomplishment. A, human-centered
rights-based approach,
across all sustainable, development
goals will not only help end poverty, but simultaneously bring, improvements, in the quality of life, the environment, and governance for the, nation.

The Government of
Pakistan has taken various measures to facilitate the process of achieving the
Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

VISION 2025:-

A major initiative by the Government of Pakistan is the VISION 2025 which has all the
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) incorporated in it. The Government and the
people of Pakistan have high hopes and expectations that Pakistan would be able
to implement this vision effectively by 2025 and hence will achieve the SDGs by
2030.

The Vision aims to serve as an aspirational document envisioning the goal of, adjusted human, social, and economic progress
all through Pakistan. It accentuates increase of development, fortifying of the
nation’s development foundation and empowering it to achieve the status of an
upper middle income nation. The Vision divides its challenges and goals into a
set of seven pillars identified as,
the key drivers of growth, which will transform Pakistan into a vibrant, and, prosperous nation by
2025. These seven pillars are based on the goals of, embracing change and transformation, and
to create new opportunities based on, our inborn qualities.

 

 

PILLARS OF VISION 2025:

Following are the seven (7) pillars of Vision 2025:

 

 

Ø Pillar-I: Developing human and social capital:-

The first priority of Vision 2025 is to provide every citizen the
ability to improve, his/her
choices and quality of life. This requires:

         
i.           
Capitalizing upon and reinforcing existing social
capital;

      
ii.           
Improving the basic human skill of the population;

    
iii.           
Providing,
access to opportunities for progression;

    
iv.           
A quick,
scaling-up of interests in investments in education, wellbeing, and social advancement;

      
v.           
Generating, employment and prospects for the youth bulge;

    
vi.           
Harnessing the rising power, of a socially aware, population, gender equality, and women’s
development;

 
vii.           
Inclusion of vulnerable, segments, interfaith harmony, and religious
diversity;

viii.           
Promotion of, art, culture and legacy;

    
ix.           
Raising sporting standards, and moving, towards an information-based,
moral, and qualities
driven society.

 

The key,
goals under this pillar are to:

o  
Achieve universal primary education with 100 per cent
net primary,
enrolment;

o  
Increase Higher Education, coverage from 7% to 12 %, and increase no.
of, PhD’s from
7,000 to 15,000;

o  
Reduce the, incidence/prevalence, of Hepatitis, Diarrhoea, Diabetes and Heart Disease by
50%;

o  
Reduce,
infant mortality rate from,
74 to less than 40 (per 1000 births) and, reduce maternal mortality rate from 276, to less than 140 (per
1000 births); and

o  
Enhance proportion, of population from 48 % to 90 % with an, access to, improved, sanitation.

 

Ø Pillar-II: Achieving sustained, indigenous, and
inclusive growth:-

 

Pakistan’s Vision 2025 seeks to revive and sustain the growth momentum, consistent with
environmental,
limits and equity considerations. The, objective is to improve living standards to every individual
irrespective of caste, creed, or religious, or political affiliation. The Vision envisages a strategy
for developing a, united
and equitable society through a balanced development approach, social, uplift and rapid, broad-based, growth. This includes:

      
i.           
Resource mobilization, through improved tax collection;

    
ii.           
Export orientation;

 
iii.           
Mobilizing the diaspora ,and attracting private sector, investment;

 
iv.           
Radical,
improvements in productivity;

    
v.           
Provision of opportunities, to all segments of society;

 
vi.           
Formalizing, the parallel economy, urban development, and smart cities, and social protection, frameworks.

The key objectives are to:

o  
Become one of the largest 25, economies in the world, leading to
Upper   Middle Income, country, status;

o  
Reduce poverty, level,
by half;

o  
Increase tax to GDP, ratio from, 9.8% to 18%;

o  
Increase FDI from USD 600 million to over, USD 15 billion.

 

Ø Pillar-III: Democratic governance, institutional
reform and modernisation of the public sector:-

 

The third pillar aims to ensure good governance; strengthen institutions
such as parliament, judiciary, police, and. the civil services; and deliver the benefits of, devolution of powers to
provincial governments as prescribed in the 18th amendment. The
Vision seeks, an
efficient and transparent government, which, operates,
under the rule of law,
and provides security of life,
and property to its people. The Vision strives to develop a skilled, motivated, and result-focused
civil service, an,
effective regulatory framework, and, an infrastructure, that supports technology, and best global practices.

 

The key goal is to:

o  
Place in the top 50th percentile, for Political Stability
(from bottom 1 percentile), No Violence/Terrorism (from bottom 1 percentile),
and ,Control of
Corruption (from bottom 13th percentile) ,as measured by the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance, Indicators.

Ø Pillar-IV: Energy, water and food security:-

Sufficient, reliable, clean,
and cost-effective availability of energy, water, and food is indispensable for ensuring, sustainable economic
growth, and
development. These key sectors,
have suffered historically from severe failings of policy and execution, and there is a need to
fill the enormous gaps in these areas, while simultaneously making efforts to
respond to the looming threat of climate change. A renewed national consensus, exists to commit new
major investment,
through unprecedented public,
and private sector collaboration to bridge very large gaps threatening the
well-being, and
progress of Pakistan.

Two major water and energy related projects — Diamer-Bhasha Dam (4500
MW) and Dasu Hydro Power Project (2160 MW) — have already been included in the
Public Sector Development Programme.

The key goals under this pillar are:

o  
Energy: double power
generation to 42,000 MW to provide uninterrupted and affordable electricity,
and increase electricity access from 67% to over 90% of the population by 2025;

o  
Water: increase
storage capacity to 90 days, improve efficiency of usage in agriculture by 20%,
and ensure access to clean drinking water for all Pakistanis;

o  
Food: Reduce the
food-insecure population from 60% to 30%.

 

Ø Pillar-V: Private sector and entrepreneurship-led
growth:-

 

Vision 2025 aims to make Pakistan a highly attractive destination, for private sector
investment, with, conditions
that allow private investors to successfully participate in its development.
The Vision seeks to achieve sustained engagement. of the private sector, where the resources
and skills, available across all sectors, are fully deployed to achieve, defined targets. This
will require:

   
i.           
A concerted focus on the, areas that inhibit the private sector,
including, the
energy deficit, lack of security, labour skills, slow and costly judicial procedures;

    
ii.           
Macroeconomic instability; and

 
iii.           
Ad hoc regulations.

The key goals are to:

o  
Rank in the top 50 countries on the World Bank’s Ease
of Doing Business Rankings

o  
Increase Diaspora investment (via remittances) in the
private sector from US 14 billion to US 40 billion.

o  
Create at least 5 global Pakistani brands (having more
than 50% sales coming from consumers outside Pakistan), and make ‘Made in
Pakistan’ a symbol of quality

 

Ø Pillar-VI: Developing a competitive knowledge economy
through value-addition:-

 

National competitiveness refers to the ability to produce and deliver
products and services effectively and profitably relative to competing
countries. Improving national competitiveness is critical to ensure we utilize
our resources in a productive manner. The Vision envisages fundamental
improvements in competitiveness across the industrial, manufacturing, services
and agricultural sectors. The foundations of a knowledge economy will be laid
and Industry-Academia linkage strengthened. Cluster based development approach
will be used and value chain improvements incentivised. Innovation, technology
adoption and value addition will be encouraged. Natural endowments will be
tapped, and productivity enhanced across all factors.

The key goals of this pillar are to:

o  
Join the ranks of the top 75 countries as measured by
the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report;

o  
Triple labour and capital productivity;

o  
Improve Pakistan’s score on the World Bank Institute’s
Knowledge Economy Index from 2.2 to four;

o  
Increase the number of tourist arrivals to 2 million.

 

Ø Pillar-VII Modernising transportation infrastructure
and greater regional connectivity:-

 

The Vision aims at establishing an efficient and integrated
transportation system, which facilitates the development of a competitive
economy. Major related targets are reduction in transportation costs, safety in
mobility, effective connectivity between rural areas and markets and urban
centres, interprovincial high-speed connectivity, integrated road and rail
networks between economic hubs (including air, sea and dry ports), and
high-capacity transportation corridors connecting major regional partners.

 

The key goals under this pillar are to:

o  
Increase road density from 32 km/100 km2 to 64 km/ 100
km2, and share of rail in transport from 4% to 20% ;

o  
Increase annual exports from US$ 25 billion to US$ 150
billion;

o  
Share of the Pakistan Railways from 4% to 20 %.

 

IMPLEMENTATION:-

§  In order to
realize Vision 2025 effectively, well defined coordination mechanism among
federating units including four provinces, and special areas such as FATA,
Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) and Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJ) is needed. The
federation will be strengthened by promoting inter-provincial and
federal-provincial communication and coordination so that national and
provincial priorities are aligned, and the federal and provincial governments
work together to reach common goals.

§  Key aspects that
will enable the successful execution of this strategic undertaking include;
sustained executive commitment & support, improved resource mobilization
and macroeconomic capacity, private sector engagement, and radical improvement
in productivity, engagement of Government-Private Sector, Academia and
Citizens, creating and network of Vision champions, bridging the Knowing-Doing
gap, performance management and evaluation framework, and employing change
management tools.

§  If the institutions who
have aligned the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with the Vision 2025 are
seriously committed to people’s betterment, they must adopt a realistic
approach by selecting certain pressing issues such as fighting poverty and
improving health and literacy indicators, and deliver on their promises.

Effective
implementation that translates policies and ideas into reality is a challenge,
but not an unconquerable one as it is globally accepted that a locally driven
approach is critical for improving human development indicators.

In the inaugural
session of the three-day 19th
Sustainable Development Conference organized by Sustainable Development
Policy Institute (SDPI) in December 2016, Climate Change Minister Zahid Hamid
stated that ‘Pakistan is now in line with
the United Nations 2030 Agenda as Vision 2025 of Pakistan is fully aligned with
the SDGs’.

 

WHITE PAPER BUDGET (2017-2018):-

Government of Punjab
has presented a White Paper Budget (2017-2018) in, which the Government has recognized
the importance of increasing development,, allocations to less developed districts, which have been
most lagging behind in the,
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), in order to achieve the, SDGs.

The White Paper Budget
notes that, a
proper stock taking exercise and a robust monitoring mechanism is needed to further propagate the
achievements of SDGs.

In the Annual
Development Programme,
2017-2018, priorities have been given to, the schemes,
that ensures the better performance of the country, against key SDGs, indicators

UNDP, along with other
UN Agencies, will continue to work with the Government of Pakistan and
Provincial Governments to identify,
and support actions that will,
take Pakistan forward across a broader range of interlinked Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs).

Along with the aforementioned
initiatives by the government, other such steps taken by the government
include:

a)    
A Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) Monitoring and Coordination Unit in collaboration with
the UNDP which will monitor the progress and process of the implementation of
SDG’s in Pakistan.

 

b)   
The Prime
Minister’s Youth Programme which includes schemes such as, business loan scheme,
interest-free loan scheme, skill development, programme and free laptop scheme.

 

c)    
An agriculture
package has also been granted by the government which is, aimed at helping small and medium farmers
through provision of direct cash support, soft loans.

 

d)   
Introduction of
new technologies in the education sector, and a national, campaign for education, in partnership with the provinces, to, enroll all the, out-of-school children
into schools to achieve universal primary, enrollment by 2030.