Sr# ions in the presence of other inorganic ions.


Target application

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Technique used

Type of technique used

Scope of studies

Specific conditions applied

Target analyte





Determination of Fe ion in water.


Fe+3 ion selective electrode

Effect of various plasticizers and anion
excluders is  studied in detail and
improved performance is observed. Determination of ferric ions in water
analyte at trace level is studied.

The potential measurements were carried out
using a 5652 digital ph meter/millivoltmeter. The ionophore (L1, L2
and L3), PVC, cation excluder (natpb/ ktpclpb) and different
plasticizers viz. O-NPOE, DBP, 1-CN, DOP and AP were dissolved in
different relative amounts in 2 ml of THF.


It shows the Nernstian slope of 19.5 ± 0.4 mv
decade?1 of
activity with a response time of 10 s.

 Other Methods provided accurate
determination of Fe3+ ion content require large infrastructure
backup and support of expertise. Therefore it is found that simple
potentiometry technique ion-selective electrodes is less bulky more accurate
and selective.

Bandi K.R et al. 20141.


Determination of Cadmium (II) ions


Cadmium (II) ion selective electrode

The ion-selective electrode (ISE) was prepared
by dispersing cadmium (II)IIP particles in2-nitrophenyloctyl ether as
plasticizer  and applied on spiked

The PVC membrane electrodes were prepared
by thorough mixing of PVC, NPOE, natpb and Cadmium (II) IIP particles (60–85
lm size) in proportions of 21%, 21%, 43% and 15% (w/w), respectively and
dissolving in 2.5 ml of tetrahydrofuran (THF). Potential measurements were
made with a potentiometer, model phm-632 (Metrohm, Swiss) having ±0.01 mv
accuracy with an Ag/agcl reference electrode.

Cd (II)

The Cd(II) ISE showed a nernstian response
for cadmium (II) over the dynamic concentration range of 2.0 x 107–1.0×102
mol L.

The researcher sussceefuly applied the
electrode and accurately determined the cadmium ions in the presence of other
inorganic ions.

Rezvani, S.A. et al. 20132


Determination of Hg (II).


Mercury ion selective electrode

A mercury ion-selective electrode (ISE) was prepared
with a polymeric membrane based on a calixarene derivative containing a
thiazole azo group as the ionophore and successfully applied to determine
mercury in a real sample.

The sensor membrane is prepared with the following composition:
the ionophore (/3%), plasticizer (/ 65%), PVC (32%) and in some instances ktpclpb
is mixed. The representative electrochemical cell for the electromotive force
(emf) measurement was as follows: Ag; agcl ½
int: soln: (102 mol
 agno3) ½ PVC
memberane ½ sample ½ salt bridge. The potential was measured in stirred
solutions via a PHS-3C digital ph meter.


Three plasticzer were applied and results showed that
membrane containing calixarene containing thiazole azo group showed best
result and detected mercurous ions at trace level

The researcher found that this ion selective electrode
fast accurate and sensitive and succesfuly proved it.

Jianquan L et al. 2008


An investigation in Copper speciation and toxicity.


Cu selective electrode

The electrode used and determined the
relationship between the reduction in the growth rate and the concentration
of free copper ion Cu copper Ion-Selective Electrode ISE. And determined its
amount in open ocean.

Toxicity tests were conducted with the
benthic diatom N. Closterium and the naked dinoflagellate Dunaliella
tertiolecta using a 72-h static exposure protocol, Cufree in the
culture solutions was measured with a copper ISE, ph of 2.5–3.5, chemical
analysis were collected in 1 l or 5 l LDPE bottles.


Absorption Spectroscopy GFAAS and ISE
provesž . That the ISE is sensitive enough to measure copper even
in open ocean samples.

reasercher susccesfuly proved that Direct measurements. Of
Cufree would facilitate the study of toxicity mechanisms and lead
to a greater understanding of processes controlling speciation in natural

Ruth S, et al. 20094


Determination of Hg(II) by mercury
selective electrode.


Ion selective electrode

The practical utility of this electrode was
established by employing it as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric
titration of Hg(II). And proved it practical for mercury in the presence of
interfering cations in aqueous solutions.

Caion exchanger polyaniline Sn(IV) , digital
potentiometer, with saturated calomel electrode as reference, and the main
reagent is obtained by CDH, GSC, E meter.


The membrane electrode could be used to
determine Hg2+ ions in the concentration range of 1×10?1 to 1×10?6 M and
the ph range of 4–9.

The membrane electrode of polyanline Sn(IV)
exhibited a high sensitivity, selectivity and fast potential response to
Hg(II) ions.

Khan A, et al.20065


Development of Pb2+–


Pb2+-selective solid-contact ises

The electrodes, controlled with a
multichannel detector system, were used for simultaneous determination of the
concentration of Pb2+ and pH in environmental water samples.

A conventional Ag/agcl reference electrode (IFS, 3M kcl,
Metrohm, 6.0729.100) with 1M lioac as bridge electrolyte was used,
temperature (21?C). The cocktail for the Pb2+-selective
membrane was prepared by dissolving 5mmol/kg natfpb, 15mmol/kg pbiv, 32wt%
PVC, and 66wt% of DOS in 3ml THF


Using this solid-state multi-sensor probe we have
successfully determined the ph of environmental sample, and shown that Pb2+
can be measured down to very low levels (2ppb).

The results demonstrated in this work show
that solid-contact ion-selective electrodes and solid-contact liquid
junction-free polymer-based reference electrode can be successfully
integrated in a single platform, and successfully applied in environmental

Bobby L. Et al.
2012 6


Determination of Fe+3in seawater


Chalcogenide glass membrane Fe(III)
selective electrode

Chalcogenide glass membrane, Fe (III) ISE  in buffered saline media has been
undertaken in order to assess the suitability of this ISE for seawater

A double junction reference electrode was used in
conjunction with the fe ise. The outer filling solution of the reference
electrode was 10%  KNO3 , and the inner
solution was 3 M KCl saturated with AgCl. A section of the chalcogenide glass
was fashioned into a disk approximately 5 mm thick and 13 mm in diameter, and
its outer surfaces were polished to a gloss finish.


Ferric ions are successfully determined with this ion
selective electrode and the results are in agreement to the results obtained
from atomic adsorption spectroscopy.

The glass membrane is successfully applied
and calibrated for the determination of ferric ion in sea water sample.

,D.Jet al. 20087


Determination of Cu(II) in mineral water


Ion selective PVC membrane electrode

The potentiometric characteristics of a new
electrode based on
2?(benzyliminomethyl)?6?methoxy?4?(4?methoxyphenyl?azo) phenol as an efficient ionophore has been

Ag?Agcl | internal solution, 0.001M M(NO3)n
| PVC membrane | test solution | SCE. A Metrohm digital pH meter (Model
780) was used for the measurement of the potential. 2?(benzyliminomethyl)?6?methoxy?4?(4methoxyphenyl?azo) phenol, as an efficient ionophore was used in the
construction of a Cu (II) ion?selective PVC membrane electrode.


A simple, fast, inexpensive, selective, and
sensitive procedure by using a new Cu2+?selective electrode constructed based on 2?(benzyliminomethyl)?6?methoxy4?(4?methoxyphenyl?azo) phenol, as an efficient ionophore, has been
succesfuly introduced.

This electrode is successfully prove by
researcher an efficient selective and fast way to detect copper.



Determination of trace level analysis of
Copper based on carbon based electrode.


Ion selective electrode

It is here established that potentiometric
carbon paste electrodes (CPE) modified with multi walled carbon nanotubes
(MWCNT) are useful analytical tools for copper ion determinations.

CPE contains 5% copper(II) ionophore I, 5% mwcnts, 30%
paraffin and 60% graphite A copper wire (15 cm length, 0.4 mm outer diameter)
is inserted A double-junction Hg/Hg2Cl2/4 M Cl-
reference electrode (RE).


Concentrations in the range of 10-7
to 10-2 M copper ion can be determined in real water samples that
also contain complexing agents and suitable working ph range for the sensor
is 3 to 5.5.

This copper sensor is successfully applied in the
environmental analysis at low cost and can easily determine copper
concentration in tap water samples.

Pouya F, et al. 20179


Determination of cobalt in soil and real


Cobalt selective electrode

A new PVC membrane electrode for Co2+ based
on N,N-bis(salicylidene)-3,4-diaminotoluene is successfully applied for the
determination of Co2+in real samples and as an indicator electrode
in potentiometric titration of cobalt ions.

PVC membranes for cobalt ion based on
N,Nbis(salicylidene)-3,4-diaminotoluene, Varying amount of the ion-active
phase and anion excluder ktpclpb and natpb were dissolved with an appropriate
amount of PVC in 5ml THF. Potential measurements were carried out at 25 ?C
using saturated calomel electrodes (SCE) as reference electrodes.


electrode exhibits a linear potential response in the concentration range of
7.98 ×10?8 to 1.0×10?1
M with a slope of 30±0.2mv per decade. The detection limit of the proposed
sensor is 5.0×10? M and it can be
used over a period of 5 months

The high selectivity of the proposed sensor made it
possible to determine the cobalt in different real samples and also used as
an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Co2+ ions

V.K 2006


Potentiometric determination of iron in
polluted water.


Fe(III) screen plated ion selective

The electrode is  applied for the determination of Fe(III) in
pure and polluted water using potentiometric technique, the reversibility and
response time of the electrode is studied.

measurements were performed using Jenway 3505 ph-metre. Silver–silver
chloride double-junction reference electrode in conjugation with different
ion selective electrode. It is based on Fe-phosphotungstate ion-associate in
a screen-printed electrode.


Thus, the working concentration range was
found to be 1×10?1 to 1×10?6 M for ions to give Nernstian response.

The researcher applied this electrode successfully
for ferric ions in water samples in the presence of interfering cations.

A.T,et al. 2013


Determination of gadolinium(III) ions in
soil and sediment samples.


Ion selective electrode

The proposed electrode was  applied to the determination of
concentration of Gd(III) ions in soil and sediment samples and validation
with crms.

The double-junction saturated calomel electrode(PVC)
membrane electrodes based onmethyl4{1(2thienyl)methylideneamino}3thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-5-(2H)-one
(MATDTO) as new carriers for gadolinium, membrane solutions containing PVC,
o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as plasticizer, sodium tetraphenyl borate (natpb)
as lipophilic ionic additive.


Nernstian behavior over the concentration range
1.0×10?6–1.0×10?1 M Gd3+ and a fast response time of <10s. The sensor works well in a ph range of 3.2–8.7, and can be successfully employed for the determination of gadolinium ions in presence of other rare earth elements. The researcher successfully applied this electrode and the proposed sensor is superior to the existing sensors in terms of response time, detection limit. Zamani H et al. 2007 13. Determination of fluoride content in drinking water Potentiometry Ion selective electrode The content of fluoride ions in water from plumbing in two Belgrade districts at the time of analysis was significantly increased and exceeded values given in Regulation for drinking water quality. Concentration of fluoride ion in water was measured on ion meter type C863 (Consort, Belgium), and combined fluoride selective electrode was used as a sensor electrode (type ISE27B). F- The advantage of ion selective electrode usage for determination of fluoride ion is in a wider range of linearity, short time of response, non-destructivity of samples and there is no contamination of samples. Potentiometric determination of fluoride content in solutions by usage of the fluoride electrode is simple, cheap and reliable. Rajkovik M,et al. 2007 14. Indirect determination of sulfate in natural waters   Potentiometry Ion selective electrode The indirect determination of sulfate is based on the formation of PbSO4 which is quantified by measurements with a lead electrode.  The sea-water samples were diluted 100-fold prior to analysis. The measurements were carried out in 80 percent isopropanol using a double-junction reference electrode. The data evaluation was performed by a Gran plot of the titration of sulfate samples with standard lead nitrate. Samples containing between 2 and 100 ppm sulfate concentration were analyzed directly,  sulfate The indirect determination of sulfate in natural waters (seawater and simulated rainwater) was accomplished by titration with lead nitrate solution using the lead ion-selective electrode as the titration sensor. The electrode succesfuly indirectly applied and sulfates in cean water are determined Eugene P. et al 2008 15. Development and application of an electronic tongue for detection and monitoring of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium levels in waters Potentiometry Ion selective electrode This work presents the first study and development of an electronic tongue analysis system for the monitoring of nitrogen stable species: nitrate, nitrite and ammonium in water. Emf measurements were performed against a double junction Ag/AgCl reference electrode. ensors were of polymeric PVC selective membrane type. The graphite–epoxy composite for the solid contact was prepared by adding the components of the epoxy resin in proportions of 24% Araldite M (Fluka), 24% Araldite Hardener 964 M (Fluka), and 2% Araldite M Accelerator 960 (Fluka) at 50% graphite carbon (Merck). Ammonium, nitrate and nitrite The sensors presented good sensitivity performance for Na+, K+, NH4 +, Cl? and NO3 the developed ET system allowed the quantification of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium in an aqueous medium in the presence of interfering species such as sodium, potassium and chloride ions.  Nuñez L. et al. 2013