Social Anxiety and General Anxiety Disorder
The Name of the Class
The City and State where it is located
Table of Contents
Definition of GAD and SA. 3
Defining the Societies Explored. 3
Examining Pressure. 4
Effects of anxiety on an individual 4
Expectations on teenagers. 5
Impact of anxiety on teenagers. 7
Pressure from parents. 8
Academic success. 9
Individual efforts. 11
Social Anxiety and General Anxiety disorder adversely affect teenagers’ mental wellbeing. Mental health is a case of well-being that the person realizes his or her own strength (Leone 2012, p.1). A mental health disorder is dubbed as an portrayed by a series of absurd thoughts, emotions, behavior and interactions with others (Leone 2012, p.1).These mental disorders include Social Anxiety and General Anxiety disorder, these anxieties are manifested by the clinical appearance of several phases and circumstances, with inclusion of profusion anxiety and anguish, finding it hard to control the anxiety or worry such as being unable to relax or cope during stressful situations(Leone 2012, p.1). In reference to these disorders, high pressure societies such as Asian cultures impact educational pressures to teenagers. To examine the extent to which educational pressures in Societies Contribute to the Onset of Social Anxiety and General Anxiety Disorder and Affect Teenagers’ Mental Well-being, a discussion of its impact with statistical data is presented.
Definition of GAD and SA
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is defined by persistent and undue worry about a different aspects in life. A person with GAD may look forward to disaster and may be overly uneasy on issues about education-for the case of teenagers, health, work, money, family or unforeseen issues (Craighead & Edward 2013, p. 192).Social Anxiety on the other hand is defined by a persistent fear of social circumstances, people with social anxiety worry of doing or saying things that elicit negative evaluations or perception from other people and respond with anxiety to real or imagined anxiety-provoking circumstances (Craighead & Edward 2013, p. 196).
Defining the Societies Explored
Asians societies have been pointed out in academic prowess by the popular mass media as well as by the published records (Weerasinghe & Panizzon 2015, p.635). Researchers have propositioned expedition to succeed in Asian societies is highly attributed Asian cultural virtues. Teenagers in these societies are taught from a tender age to obey and respect their parents. Education in these high pressure societies is overly esteemed, parents and guardians recurrently forgo many wants in order to provide avenue to the best education they can manage for their children. Asian teenagers often aim to achieve academic prowess to repay their parents for their sacrifices and to be a source of honor to the family. Asian teenagers are often pressured by teachers and family achieve high expectations and the probable chance of failure may contribute to the high levels of stress that may lead to the Onset of Social Anxiety and General Anxiety Disorder and Affect Teenagers’ Mental Well-being, that has been found among Asian youth (Weerasinghe & Panizzon 2015, p.636).
Pressure to excel is more often wise and hidden established on the Asian societal virtue system rather than through apparent visible means. This may include and not limited to the norm that one must has to at all-time aim to be the best rather than trying their best as it is the case in western cultures (Sarma 2014, p.140).Incognito behaviors that may imitate pressure and may include discursively affecting academics by, for example, separating the patient from friends to encourage educational spotlight. Apparent behaviors that may convey pressure, on the other hand, are more direct and can include punitive measure of achieving below parental predictions (Sarma 2014, p.139).
To What Extent Could High Educational Pressures in Societies Contribute to the Onset of Social Anxiety and General Anxiety Disorder and Affect Teenagers’ Mental Well-being?
Effects of anxiety on an individual
Anxiety disorders often result in change of operational and coping by an individual in many environments (Leone 2012, p.2). Excited adolescents for example formulate heavy burdens on society because as they suffer with their own personal struggles, they interact in increased troubled behaviors, have poor self-esteem and show low school achievements, such as avoidance, absenteeism and inability to concentrate on their education. Thus, if the youth are left unattended or ignored, the anxiety disorders may develop and may lead to further mental health complications, poor social and developmental outcomes later in their life (Leone 2012, p.2).
Psychological well-being is thought to protect against common mental health problems.. The common age of onset for General Anxiety Disorder begins in early teenage life and early adulthood. The clinical course of the disorder is established to be chronic as most patients are still affected six to twelve years after the first diagnosis (Leone 2012, p.3). Studies have shown that immoderate negative view toward anxiety symptoms (such as anxiety or worry) firmly estimate increased generalized anxiety symptoms among healthy individuals and GAD patients (Leone 2012, p.3).
Expectations on teenagers
Across the globe, there are societies that impact a lot of pressure on teens to propel the in achieving academic excellence, most notably is South Korea, India and Hong Kong. South Korea to start with, delights itself in the educational success of its teenagers. The country’s teenagers have the highest reading tally among developed countries, South Korea ranks third in proficiency in science and mathematics, with more than eighty percent of them going to college. The remarkable statistics, however, has a negative impact. First, there is pressure on teens Many Korean children start their private tutoring or attending cram schools even before they reach school age. According to the OECD, the percentage of 15-year olds attending private institutions for after-school lessons is more than twice the OECD average (Fawaz & Lee 2016, p.2).
One implication of Korea’s massive investment in education is that their students are among the highest performers in the world, according to the OECD Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) report. Those same students also happen to be the unhappy youth in the world, or at least amongst those countries that are part of PISA. The suicide rate in the children and youth category (10-19 years old) in Korea went from 3.2 persons (out of 100,000) in 2000 to 5.6 persons in 2010, while the OECD average rate decreased from 7.7 to 6.5 over the same period. Besides, low levels of self-reported subjective well-being for the youth can having lasting effect (Fawaz & Lee 2016, p.2).and may also lead to high levels of depression in adulthood, and should not be overlooked as being just the necessary trade-off for a successful life in the future.
Another country that exhibits high education pressures is China. This is evident by one relevant factor arguably the engrossment of parents in their teenagers’ education.Such involvement has captivated the attention of the world for some time. Chinese parents and those in Hong Kong, for example, are often reported to spend time each day in assessing the academic life of their children(Weerasinghe & Panizzon 2015, p.635).The term “Tiger mom” has come to refer to the authoritative parenting style in which parents give their children few or no options, and hardly enquire from their children for opinions (Weerasinghe & Panizzon 2015, p.635).This impacted pressures on education results in To What Extent Could High Educational Pressures in Societies Contribute to the Onset of Social Anxiety and General Anxiety Disorder and Affect Teenagers’ Mental Wellbeing.
Impact of anxiety on teenagers
The extent to which High Educational Pressures in Societies Contribute to the Onset of Social Anxiety and General Anxiety Disorder and Affect Teenagers’ Mental Wellbeing is extreme. This is evident by the number of suicide cases reported in this societies. Since social anxiety and general anxiety disorder may lead to uncontrollable actions by the teens, its implications can only be drawn from the actions reported in this societies. Other than suicide, high education pressures may lead to depression and affect the teen years after treatment. Further effects of high education pressures are discussed.
Though it is widely known that Korea has the highest rate of suicide among the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations, what is less known is that this rate surges among students when the National College Scholastic Aptitude Test (CSAT) results are released (Hunt 2015, p.48).In 2010, three elementary, fifty three junior high, and ninety high school students committed suicide (Hunt 2015, p.48). It is evident that high schools teenagers comprise the largest number of deaths for they face the most intense educational pressure. In 2012, the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea conducted a research that discovered one out of four students consider committing suicide. In 2014, the number of children aged ten to nineteen perusing their studies had suicidal thoughts, and the number rose to one in two (Hunt 2015, p.48).
South Korean teens have been reported as one of the highest suicidal teens globally. Suicide, as a fact, educational pressure is the preeminent cause of death among South Koreans aged fifteen to twenty (La Voix des Jeune, 2018, p.1) Many Korean children start their private tutoring or attending cram schools even before they reach school age. According to the OECD, the percentage of 15-year olds attending private institutions for after-school lessons is more than twice the OECD average (Fawaz & Lee 2016, p.2).
Pressure from parents
The idea of duty and obligation to parents by children is a particularly intrusivevalue across Asian Societies. Asian parents have deep delight in the fortune of their children andmore often than not, are willing to make compelling time-related as well as economic endurance to gladden their children’s educational endeavors (Sarma 2014, p.3). As a result, however, Asian teens tend to embody a sense of obligation to their parents and feel compelled to meet their guardians’ high expectations (Sarma 2014, p.3). The high expectations consequently may cause teenagers to feel pressure, in a directly or indirectly manner, from their parents to perform. In a qualitative review of academic performance among Chinese immigrants in Britain, Archer and Francis (2006) interviewed eighty British Chinese adolescents between the ages fourteen and sixteen Chinese immigrant parents living in the United Kingdom, and thirty English teachers. Since the teens consistently detailed their family as their profound source of, motivation, support and inspiration. From this, it clear that teens are under constant pressure to achieve.
A research of two thousand secondary school students in Mainland China and Hong Kong correspondingly found that over-confidence from families’ pressured young adults find means in academic excellence. These, however led to distress, depression and anxiety regardless of perceptions of family supporting these teenagers (Sarma 2014, p.6). Academic over-confidence was the steady and most generally reported cause of discomfort and mental well-being for the young adults in the study (Sarma 2014, p.6).
In India, the mass media alone are flooded with stories of “academic pressurization” induced by guardians and parents. These and other writings excogitate the risk and effects of pressurizing children “over the edge” on academic and general educational achievements. These educational pressures have been cogitated to be a major cause of teenage suicides in India (Sarma 2014, p.6). India as high pressure educational society has been identified as “fiercely competitive” with reason cited by the high density population in comparison to the limited resources available in job markets, admissions to renowned colleges and chances of opportunities abroad (Sarma 2014, p.7). Academic subjects in India are also esteemed in relation to their status rather than their relative suitability with the interests of a person.
To gain a better understanding on the qualitative nature of parental pressure and the severity with which it can affect Indian teenage students, Mohan interviewed twenty five undergraduates in an out-patient psychiatric clinic in India (Sarma 2014, p.6). All those who participated cited issues with educational pressure, including feelings of being unable tomeet their own academic expectations. The group perceived their parents’ push for academic achievements as pressure, this led to severe stress, was a theme present across the cases, these is evident that not only does educational pressures affect the mental well-being of teens but also an onset of social anxiety and general anxiety (Sarma 2014, p.6).
Academic pressure is a burning issue of huge importance among adolescents across the world with a specific interest in high pressure societies of among Asians cultures. Looking into the educational pressures and expectations from Asian families like the case of South Korea, Hong Kong and India, “be the best” and Asian cultural beliefs that appraise education, endurance, hard work and persistence self-improvement, cross-cultural studies in the U.S. and the United Kingdom have found that Asians are more pressured towards education than are their Western peers (Sarma 2014, p.6).
Studies in Asian societies such as South Korea, Hong Kong and India have also supported findings that indeed there is educational pressure might onset social and General Anxiety Disorder and Affect Teenagers. For example, Chung and Cheung (2008) found that academic stress was the most powerful risk factor for disturbed sleep among 1,629 twelve to nineteen year olds in Hong Kong. In a reflection of the research on mental health in Hong Kong, Biggs (2002) recorded statistics that between 10% and 15% of teens in Hong Kong are “psychologically at risk” (p. 205) due to educational pressure, inadequate time spent outdoors and involvement in physical exercises, and parents approach that compliment respect instead of love. Biggs detailed that the educational system of Hong Kong to be “harsh and exam-dominated” (p. 205), the system begins during the early stages of a teens development in pre-school.
Educational pressures begin at an early age of a teenager, with parents playing a pivot role in enforcing these pressures. Preschools for example in Hong Kong are primarily set out of parental need to want their children gain admission to prestigious universities (Biggs 2002, p.205).The parental push on children consequently affects the teachers, pre-school education for example as stated in Hong Kong devotes to “drill-driven” as part of a chain reaction of the onset of exams, despite the Chinese government making recent measures to establish a holistic philosophy in education (Biggs2002, p.206). A research of over six hundred middle and high school students in China reported that academics were the most stressful aspect of their daily lives, this being a result of educational pressure may onset social and general anxiety (Guiping & Huichang 2001, p.34).
The elemental acceptance of the Educational Stress Scale for Adolescents (ESS-A), as new mechanism to determine academic stress among Asians. Vetting educational stress due to pressure around the teens, academic achievement, suicidal thoughts, and depression the researchers recruited a cross-sectional segment of over two thousand eleven to twenty year old adolescents in grades seven to twelve in China. Educational stress due to overwhelming pressure positively correlated with depression and suicidal thoughts. On the other hand, grades negatively associated with educational stress, implying that the more often students performed in school, the more likely they developed stress and experienced depression.
Considering the aspect of academic stress and adolescent distress in aquantitatively and qualitatively manner, Rao (2009) surveyed 588 12th grade students in Chennai, India on matters of anxiety and depression and oversaw an in-depth semi-structuredinterviews with 24 students. Rao reported that 15.6% of the students scored in the clinicalrange for depression assessed on the Beck Depression Inventory and that correlated toWestern norms in past studies, students from India experienced a high level of conditionedand trait anxiety. The Indian students spent an average of eight to nine hours per week inadditional study and instruction outside of school, this is enough pressure to not only affect the mental well-being of the student, but also an onset of anxiety disorder.
Educational pressure is not only derived from parents but also general investment by the governments in high pressure education societies. The large investment on education is seen in both on public and private sector. South Korea for example, spent 8% of GDP on education, from public and private funds altogether, against 6% of OECD and its partner countries (Fawaz & Lee 2016, p.5). However, 73% of the investment came from private sources, as opposed to 31% of the OECD average. This shows that funding on education is heavily dependent on individuals. From the individual perspective, private tutoring is widely received among students. A South Korea survey on private tutoring showed that 68.8% of students in primary and secondary education received private tutoring in 2013. According to the same survey, the main objective of this private tutoring is to raise academic grades for higher education, especially for university entrance exam (Fawaz & Lee 2016, p.5).
From evidence presented, it can be seen that High Educational Pressures in Societies Contribute to the Onset of Social Anxiety and General Anxiety Disorder and Affect Teenagers’ Mental Wellbeing. High pressure societies include most Asian cultures, there are termed as high pressure societies due to the pressure they exert on young generations in education and the push impacted on the teens towards achievement. Evidence has pointed out the effects manifested in these high educational societies among teen in South Korea, India and Hong Kong. The data from this unique research are an exploratory discovery into teenagers anxiety Basing on the suicide rates reported, and the qualitative and quantitative survey conducted by researchers of teens contemplating suicide, it can be concluded that educational pressures in Societies Contribute to the Onset of Social Anxiety and General Anxiety Disorder and Affect Teenagers’ Mental Well-being.
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