Sir Arthur Conan Doyle lived from 22 May 1859 until 7 July 1930, most of his Sherlock Holmes stories are set in the Victorian Era (1837-1901) and some in the Edwardian Era (1901-1910), with one final Victorian time case (this is his last novel) during the First World War set in 1914.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote four novels and 56 short stories that are collected in five books. His first novel, A Study in Scarlet was published in Beeton’s Christmas Annual in 1887 and his second novel, The Sign of Four, was published in Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine in 1890. In the last story of the second collection The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes, Arthur Conan Doyle decides to make an end to the life of Sherlock Holmes because he felt that he didn’t get enough credit for the other stories that he wrote. But under pressure of popular demands for over eight years, Doyle decided to bring Sherlock Holmes back to life in the novel called The Hound of the Baskervilles. And he went on with making more stories about Sherlock Holmes until his own death in 1930.
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There are quite some important Victorian writing style characteristics, a few of them really stand out in Arthur Conan Doyle’s stories. The first one is that the literature of this age tends to come close to the daily life. In the stories about Sherlock Holmes you get to know that Sherlock Holmes plays his violin to help him think and that he sometimes uses cocaine.
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Sherlock Holmes is known as a Victorian detective because most of his stories were set in the Victorian Era, the scene setting is another reason for why he is remembered as a Victorian. The streets in Doyle’s stories are full of horse traffic, (Sherlock uses horse cabs a lot) with gas lights and Doyle often points out the fog on the streets, which is a typical Victorian (London) characteristic (and in some cases are a bit supernatural).
Arthur Conan Doyle has a specific way of looking at the world, this is of course influenced by the Victorian Era he lived in. He used the time he lived in for the setting of the stories he wrote. If you want/are going to write your own story in the same style it is important to keep that in mind. If the story you write is set nowadays you should describe nature elements the same way as Doyle did. When Doyle mentions fog in The Hound of the Baskervilles : “The fog-bank lay like white wool against the window. Holmes held the lamp towards it”
You could write about the rain that you leave behind you when driving out of London to stay close to how Arthur Conan Doyle describes the setting for the Victorian Era.
The setting in Sherlock Holmes stories is very important because it sets the mood of the story. Arthur Conan Doyle describes the setting a lot and this makes you more aware of what is happening and how the characters in the story must feel, it drags you into the story. Doyle did write in a Victorian style, so you could as well use other Victorian stories to stay in the same style as Doyle