Since 2016 was 470,000 – more than 86 thousand

Since
the beginning of the war in March 2011, Syrian Center for Policy Research
estimates that the death toll from the conflict as of February 2016 was 470,000
– more than 86 thousand of which were civilians. More than 6.1 million people internally
displaced and 4.8 million seeking refuge abroad, according to the UN Office for
the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.1 Therefore,
more than half of the population of Syria which has a population of around 22
million, has been displaced.2 The
12.2 million people living in Syria need humanitarian assistance due to
conflicts, more than 5.6 million of them are children, and the human tragedy
within the country is increasing. According to UNICEF Canada, 80% of Syrians
now live in poverty and a third of the hospitals and a quarter of the schools
in Syria are no longer operating.3

            1.3.
Refugee Flows

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            The refugee situation caused by the
Syrian conflict is dire, and it has placed enormous strain on neighboring
countries.4
Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey host massive numbers of Syrian
refugees. As of December 6, 2017, there are 5,419,277 registered refugees in
neighboring countries of Syria.5
More than 3 million of these refugees live in Turkey, nearly 1 billion in
Lebanon, 655 thousand in Jordan, and 246 thousand in Iraq.6 However,
Syrians have been seeking protection beyond these countries in increasing
numbers since 2011.

            According to the UN High
Commissioner for Refugees, the number of Syrian refugees applying for asylum in
European countries by October 2017 is 996,204.7
Germany is the country with the highest number of refugee applicants in the
European Union countries, with 518,326 and then Sweden with 114,585.8 As
well as Germany is hosting only about 3 percent of the total number of Syrian
asylum seekers in the world, it is the country with the highest number of
asylum seekers among EU countries.

With
the Second World War, millions have become refugees and been forced to leave
their homeland. The international community tried to find a solution to the
European problem and refugee situation. That is why the Geneva Convention on
the Status of Refugees was signed in 1951. The 1951 Refugee Convention become
the international act defining the status and rights of refugees and framing
international response to humanitarian crises. By the 1967 Protocol, historical
and geographical restrictions on the application of the refugee status to the
“Europeans in the events that took place before 1 January 1951”
brought by the 1951 Convention were abolished and it is accepted that it is
necessary to provide protection to the refugees as a result of the events that
took place during the period afterwards. Thus, the 1951 Convention has taken on
a universal character that can be applied throughout the world.9 So
far, the Convention has been ratified by 147 countries and the Protocol by 146.

            The Article 1A (2) of the Convention
defines a refugee as a person who is outside his or her country of nationality who
has a well-founded fear of being persecuted because of his or her race,
religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political
opinion; and is unable or unwilling to benefit from the protection of that
country, or to return there because of the fear of persecution. A refugee is
someone who has requested asylum in another country and the request is accepted
by that country while the asylum-seeker is the person who has left the country
for the above reasons and is still in the process of being investigated by the
authorities of the asylum application. Immigrants, on the other hand, are given
to the person who has migrated to another country, separated from the country
of the state, where he is a citizen, for economic reasons, to get a better
standard of living. Immigrants, unlike those seeking asylum, continue to
benefit from the protection of their own state and voluntarily take this
journey.

            On the EU level, refugee matters are
managed under the Dublin regulation. Apart from defining the member states’
responsibilities, the most relevant point is that asylum seekers should apply
for protection in the first EU country they reach, to prevent multiple
applications in different EU countries. The law puts a particularly big burden
on border states such as Italy, Greece and Hungary, who had difficulties to
cope with the number of refugees reaching their borders. Most notably, Germany
has announced suspending the regulation’s application and thus allowing
refugees to claim asylum on its soil.10

 

 

According
to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the number of Syrian refugees
applying for asylum in European countries by October 2017 is 996,204.11
Germany is the country with the highest number of refugee applicants in the
European Union countries, with 518,326 and then Sweden with 114,585.12
As well as Germany is hosting only about 3 percent of the total number of
Syrian asylum seekers in the world, it is the country with the highest number
of asylum seekers among EU countries.

            In the first four years
of the Syrian crisis, the EU member states adopted a policy of non-involvement
/ indifference to developments, with few exceptions. The 2015 was the turning
point in the rise of the awareness of the Syrian crisis in Europe, especially
on the human dimension. Because, with the millions of illegal immigrations into
Europe, the immigrant crisis has been regarded as an attack on the external
borders of the EU and has begun to be seen as a threat to EU integration.13