Schoop pre medicated with a prednisolone and diphenhydramine regimen.

Schoop et al., (2013) states,
9 percent of patients had a repeat reaction if they received an ionic
high-osmolality ICM and only 0.5 percent if they received a non-ionic
low-osmolality ICM after being pre medicated with a prednisolone and
diphenhydramine regimen. Therefore the possibility of a repeat allergic
reaction to ICM cannot be totally eliminated with pre medication but it is the
most effective means to reduce its likelihood (Schopp et al., 2013).  Furthermore Iyer et al., (2103)
affirms a non-ionic low-osmolality ICM should be used in conjunction with pre
medication.  Reports have shown that
94-100 percent of severe reactions to ICM occur within the first 20 minutes
after the injection and thus for the safety of the patient they should be
observed for 20-30 minutes post injection (Iyer et al., 2013).   Abdominal aortic
aneurysms continue to be a prominent cause of death in the United States
(Wadgaonkar et al., 2015).  The rate of
mortality only increases without a prompt and accurate diagnosis (Park et al.,
2015).  It is difficulty to accurately
diagnose an AAA because of the complex structure of blood vessels, such as the
aorta (Park et al., 2015).  CT technology
with the injection of contrast media (CTA) has overcome this obstacle (Park et
al., 2015).  CTA is accurate, widely
available and imaging is very quick (Kumamaru et al., 2011).   Patients
must be screened for a previous history of an allergic reaction to contrast
media for their protection (Schopp et al., 2013).  The best treatment for an allergic reaction
is prevention (Iyer et al., 2013).   If a
patient has had a severe reaction to ICM than a CTA will not be performed and
alternate method would be used to diagnose an AAA (Iyer et al., 2013).  A patient with a mild reaction to ICM is pre
medicated with a regimen of oral prednisolone and oral diphenhydramine (Schopp
et al., 2013).  Pre medication will not
guarantee a repeat reaction will not occur but studies have shown that it will
significantly reduce the chance (Schopp et al., 2013).  With proper screening of patients, CTA has
become the gold standard for imaging the aorta to diagnose an AAA.