REVIEW sector powerful. It also plays a vital role

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction

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            Construction is an activity that requires high-risk. It must be managed from procurement, the start of the project, from the design process until the end of the construction stage  Niall O & Donovan (n.d.).

            Construction is very important economically. For instance, Durdyev & Ismail (2012) asserted that it is one of the most dynamic and responsive sectors in the industry. It stimulates great amount of economic growth and has a highly visible output which makes its sector powerful. It also plays a vital role in the growth and development of the economy and is very important in terms of satisfying basic physical and social needs like shelter Moavenzadeh & Rossow (1976). Hence, construction does not only boost up the economy but it also provides shelter and roads.

Research interest in construction of roads are already numerous as the construction industry is continuously finding ways to better the quality of their constructions and avoid delay. Thus this literature review attempts to explore studies regarding the factors that affect the delays in the construction project duration.      

Construction Delays

            Constructions encounter delays throughout the project duration. According to Haseeb, Xinhai-Lu, Bibi, Maloof-ud-Dyian, & Rabbani (2011) construction delays is a fact that mostly occurs in the construction industry. They further added that delays are always expensive to all concerned parties in the project. It is generally regarded as the most common problem in constructions, complex and risky Sambasivan & Soon (2007). It also prompts negative effects such as the increase of project cost, loss of productivity and contact termination Owolabi et al. (2014). In addition, Anastasopoulos, Labi, Bhargava, & Mannering (2012) asserted that delays could extend the duration of the project and contributes to the dissatisfaction of road users and could also increase the risk of litigation. Thus causes financial and coordination problems throughout the project duration Alaghbari, Mohd. Razali, Azizah, & Ernawati (2007).

Effects of Construction Delays

Frequent effects of construction delays in most projects according to Aibinu & Jagboro (2002) are time and cost overruns. However Pourrostam & Ismail (2012) added disputes, total abandonment, arbitration and litigation. Furthermore Kikwasi (2013) added negative social impact and idling resources as its main effects.

Causes of Construction Delays

According to Mohammed & Isah (2012) the causes of delay in construction projects are improper planning, lack of communication, design errors, and shortage of supply. Meanwhile Frimpong, Oluwoye, & Crawford (2003) asserted that monthly payment difficulties from the agencies, poor contractor management, material procurement, poor technical performance and escalation of the prices of materials are the causes of delays in construction. However according to Manavazhi & Adhikari (2002) the cause of delays in construction are the organization’s  weakness, defaults of the supplier, governmental regulations and the delay in transportation.         Moreover, according to Arantes, Da Silva, & Ferreira (2016) slow decision-making, change in orders, unrealistic timescales, and poor contract specifications, financial constraints, and type of bidding and contract award process delays the construction project.