References afforestation), increased carbon storage per unit region, for


     Nowadays, climate
change is one of the most concerning issues. Although scientists are not sure
if the human activities (for instance agriculture, forestry, etc.) truly have a
considerable impact on the future climate change, there are several
environmental management approaches (like AFOLU management) that have been
reached to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions releasing to the atmosphere. Opportunities
for mitigation contain supply-side and demand-side options. On the supply side,
land management, emissions from land-use change and livestock management can be
decreased, territorial carbon stocks can be increased by sequestration in biomass
and soils. On the demand side, GHG emissions could be reduced by decreasing
losses and changes of food consumption. Increasing production without an
increase in emissions also decreases emission intensity, for instance, the GHG
emissions per unit of product which could be delivered through tolerable
intensification. Supply-side options depend on the impacts of land management.
Considering demand-side options, changes in human diet can play an important
role in GHG emissions from the food production. There are considerably
different challenges involved in these options, that have varied collaborations.

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4. Conclusion


6.    Decreasing of direct (e.
g., fishing craft, agricultural machinery) and indirect (e. g., aquaculture, production
of fertilizers, emissions resulting from fossil energy use in agriculture, production
of fertilizers, emissions resulting from fossil energy use in agriculture, and
forestry or from production of inputs).

5.    Preparation of products
with low GHG emissions that can replace products with higher GHG emissions.

4.    Improvement of carbon
sequestration in biota, soils, and long-lived products through increases in the
region of carbon-rich ecosystems such as forests (reforestation or
afforestation), increased carbon storage per unit region, for example, increased
stocking density in forests, carbon sequestration in soils, and wood use in

3.    Depletion of carbon losses
from soils and biota, for example, through management changes within the same
land-use type (e. g., decreasing soil carbon loss by replacing tillage instead
of no-till cropping) or by decreasing losses of carbon-rich ecosystems, for
instance, reduced deforestation.

2.    Protection of existing
carbon stocks, for instance, conservation of forest, soil carbon, and peatlands
that would otherwise be lost.

1.    Depletion of N2O
and CH4 emissions from grazing lands, croplands, etc.

activities in the AFOLU sector can reduce climate forcing in different ways:

     Greenhouse gases can be decreased by supply-side
mitigation options (i.e., by reducing GHG emissions per unit of animal/ land,
or product), or by demand-side choices (e.g., by changing demand for food
products and decreasing waste).

3.2. How does AFOLU management prevent the climate


     Moreover, burning
vegetation releases CH2, CO2, ozone-precursors,
N2O, and aerosols (containing black carbon) to the atmosphere. Anthropogenic
land management or land conversion fire activities causing constant clearance
or rising levels of disturbance contribute to net emissions to the atmosphere
over time. It is hard to separate the causes of fire as anthropogenic or natural,
as the drivers are usually mixed. An update of the GFED methodology now identifies
FOLU degradation and deforestation fires from other management fires. The
estimated tropical degradation and deforestation fire emissions were 1.39
GtCO2eq / yr between 1997 and 2009, 20 percent of all fire emissions.

     In addition to this, Undisturbed organic soils store a
large amount of carbon and act as small net sinks. Drainage of peatlands
(organic soils) for agriculture results in a sharp increase in decomposition
rates, causing increased emissions of CO2, and N2O, and
vulnerability to further GHG emissions through fire. The FAO emissions database
estimates 250,000 km2 of drained organic soils under cropland and
grassland globally, with total GHG emissions of 0.9 GtCO2eq / yr in 2010 — with
the largest contributions from Asia (0.44 GtCO2eq / yr) and Europe (0.18
GtCO2eq / yr). There are  500,000 km2 of drained organic soils
(peatlands) in the world containing forests, with CO2 emissions
having raised from 1.06 GtCO2 / yr in 1990 to 1.30 GtCO2 / yr in 2008.


Fig2: Global
trends from 1971 to 2010. (Smith, 2014)




emissions for the recent 40 years (Smith, 2014)


     Estimating the
anthropogenic component of gross and net AFOLU GHG fluxes to the atmosphere,
globally and at country level, is more difficult than other sectors. Firstly,
it is not always possible to separate natural GHG and anthropogenic fluxes from land. Secondly, the input data necessary
to estimate GHG emissions globally and regionally, often based on country-level
statistics, are very uncertain. Thirdly, methods for estimating GHG emissions
use a range of approaches, from simple default methodologies to more complex
estimates founded on territorial carbon cycle modelling and remote sensing
information. Global trends in total GHG emissions from AFOLU activities between
1971 and 2010 are illustrated in Figure 1; Figure 2 illustrates trends of significant
drivers of emissions.

     Eligible VCS
REDD activities are Avoiding Planned Deforestation and Degradation (APDD), also
Avoiding Unplanned Deforestation and Degradation (AUDD). The VCS REDD
Methodology Module is applicable to forest lands that would be deforested in
the absence of the project activity but, there are no modules included for
activities to reduce the emissions from forest degradation caused by illegal
harvesting of trees for timber.

3.1. How Does AFOLU Affect the Climate Change?


     AFOLU projects
are categorized in these categories: Agricultural Land Management (ALM),
Afforestation, Reforestation and Revegetation (ARR), Reduced Emissions from
Deforestation and Degradation (REDD), Improved Forest Management (IFM),
Wetlands Restoration and Conservation (WRC), Avoided Conversion of Grasslands
and Shrublands (ACoGS).

Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) is a term from the 2006 Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines explaining a category of activities
which lead to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Used in national
greenhouse gas inventories, the AFOLU category mixes two previous sectors
LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry) and Agriculture. Both
sectors were integrated in the previous IPCC Guidelines into one sector called
Agriculture Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) to improve the general
consistency and completeness of the national inventories. AFOLU accounts for
more than 30% of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.