Project water vapor than cold air (Williams, 2013, pp.15).

 

Project design plan

This report details the scientific technique used to investigate the effects of the water temperature at which evaporation of water takes place.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Problem statement: the experiment aimed to compare the temperature effects on the evaporation rate of water.

The vision of the experiment was to establish three containers. All container holds the equal quantity of water.  The humidity and the surrounding air are kept constant. One bottle is maintained at a constant cooling temperature, another one heated at a constant temperature and last one at a constant room temperature. The main point is how the three different water temperatures impacts the rate at which evaporation of water from the containers takes place.

The experiment was perceived as part of an effort to learn about the global warming.  Water comprises approximately 75% of the world (Williams, 2013, pp.11). And so, understanding how water temperature increase impacts the evaporation of water and if the global warming influences the water base.

The relevance of the questions: evaporation is the scientific process where the liquid changes to a gas state by increasing the speed of the molecules which contribute to an energy release (Brutsaert, 2013, pp.6). Water evaporates faster at a higher temperature.

Literature review

The volume of evaporated water depends on the water temperature, air humidity and the air velocity above the surface. The speed in which water evaporates contributes directly to how much water vapors is in the air, and provides indirectly to future precipitation (Williams, 2013, pp.11). However, the rate of evaporation depends on the external variables such as humidity, temperature, and air velocity. When humidity and temperature are constant, wind speed increases and rate of evaporation also rises. When wind and temperature are consistent, but humidity upsurges, evaporation rate will drop (Brutsaert, 2013, pp.20). When the humidity and wind speed are constant, and the temperatures rise, the evaporation rate will increase because the warmer air can hold more water vapor than cold air (Williams, 2013, pp.15).

Experimental design

The constant in the experiment

Amount of water

Type of water (tap water)

Location of the experiment

Container size

Number of the test

Container type

Evaporation length

Tools and technologies

Materials

One small home humidifiers

One graduated measuring cup

One gallon jug of tap water

One digital thermometer

One digital wall mounted humidity gauge and temperature

Foursquare foot, three-foot-high table

One thermos 

One digital timer

One 12*12 terry cloth cooling towel

Four-inch circular electrical heating plate

Three eight-ounce glass glasses

Experimental procedure

1. Collect and verify the integrity of all required materials

2. Maintain and stabilize the humidity of the test site using a small home air humidifier. The stabilization of your humidity should be between 40-50%

3. Maintain a consistent room temperature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit.

4. Isolated room was used to sustain and stabilize the airspeed. The air movement was introduced into the room to stabilize the humidity and temperature but was considered not significant enough to influence the tests.

5. A gallon jug of water was placed in a testing room for the three days to regulate humidity and room temperature.

6.100 ml of tap water from the jug stabilized was poured into each of three identical 8-ounce glass glasses using the graduated measuring cup.

7. The glasses were placed at the center of the table so that they are similarly influenced by the room temperature, air movement, and humidity.

8. One glasses were placed on the heating plate. The plate raised the temperature of the water up to the 140 degrees mark within 30 minutes. After reaching the consistent temperature, the volumes of the water was checked to ensure the testing point is at 100ml.

9. Using thermos, cooled by keeping it in a refrigerator in 24 hours, one of the glasses is inserted inside the thermos.  The purpose of the thermos is to lower the temperature of the water up to 35 degrees in 30 minutes. The rechecking point is crucial to ensure the initial testing point is 100ml.

10. Place a glass on the table and then stabilize to the room temperature. It takes 30 minutes for the water to attain and stabilize to a room temperature degree point. Once again the volume of the water in the glass is rechecked to ensure the starting level is 100ml mark.

11. Using timer let the glasses of water sit in the testing room at different temperature for 180 minutes.

12. Measure the remaining glasses of water in milliliters from each glass using a graduated measuring glass.

13. Record the remaining millimeters after evaporation for each temperature for every test

14. Repeat steps 11-12 for two more steps and total evaporation duration is nine hours

15. Wait for 24 hours from the start of the experiment and repeat steps 1-14

16. Repeat steps 14 one more time.

Reasoning: experimental design aimed to provide three water sources maintained at three different temperature kept in a controlled humidity, room temperature, and air rate surrounding. The environment was expected to give a static surrounding to allow evaporation of water to progress solely based on the temperature of the three water sources. Using identical initial water amounts and graduated measuring cup to measure the resulting water amount was expected to give the correct results.

Series of trials in collecting quantitative data

1. Let water sit at three different temperature for 180 minutes

2. Measure the remaining water from each glass in millimeters

3. Record the remaining millimeters after evaporation of each test

4. Repeat steps 1-3 and total evaporation should be in nine hours.

5. Wait 24 hours from the initiation of the test and repeat steps 1-4.

6. Repeat steps 5 two more times.

Variables

Independent:  the changed values were the water temperature in the three glass glasses

Dependent:  the observed outcomes of the independent variables being changed were the resulting water amount in each glass after an occurrence of evaporation.

Controlled:  air humidity,  room temperature, airspeed, type of water, a location of water placement,  size of the containers,  amount of water, the numbers of tests, kind of containers, lengthy of evaporation.

Threat reduction to internal validity

Following steps were taken to reduce the internal validity

Stabilize and maintain the humidity using home air humidifiers at 40%

Steadying and maintaining airspeed in testing room

Stabilizing the room temperature by using home HVAC systems at 700C

Stabilization of water by placing a gallon taps of water in room for three days

Stabilizing the test surrounding by putting the glasses into center of the room on a table so that they are equally influenced by humidity, room temperature, and air movement

Hypothesis

The water temperature would influence the evaporation rate significantly and the higher the temperature of water, the higher the evaporation would take place. The hypothesis suggested that the warmer the water, the more water molecules would escape as vapor. The hypothesis theorized that the water molecules have more energy that would produce more molecules escaping as vapors.

Process of data collection

The contents of all glass were emptied into the measuring cup and the subsequent water measured and noted at the end of every evaporation round of 180 minutes. The data below depicts resulting millimeters for each sample for entire test cycle as well as percentages of evaporation that happened which was determined by subtracting the resulting value from the original 100 millimeters and dividing by 100.

Experiment 1

Hours

Heated water (ml)

Room temperature (ml)

Cooled water (ml)

3

71

98

90

6

43

97

79

9

6

96

67

 

% Evaporation

Heated water

Room temperature

Cooled water

3hours

0.29

0.02

0.10

6hours

0.57

0.03

0.21

9hours

0.94

0.04

0.33

 

 

 

 

Experiment 2

Hours

Heated water (ml)

Room temperature (ml)

Cooled water (ml)

3

70

97

98

6

46

96

97

9

8

95

96

 

% Evaporation

Heated water

Room temperature

Cooled water

3hours

0.30

0.03

0.02

6hours

0.54

0.04

0.03

9 hours

0.92

0.05

0.04

 

Experiment 3

Hours

Heated water (ml)

Room temperature (ml)

Cooled water (ml)

3

77

99

97

6

49

98

87

9

10

97

85

 

 

 

% Evaporation

Heated water

Room temperature

Cooled water

3hours

0.23

0.01

0.03

6hours

0.51

0.02

0.13

9hours

0.90

0.03

0.15

 

Results of experiment

The highest rates of evaporation occurred in the heated sample. The amount of water source decreased from the previous evaporation. It is worth noting that the subsequent evaporations were larger. The room temperature samples had marginal evaporation as expected. The results of the cooled samples were somewhat surprising, particularly in the first trial. It was presumed that the degree of evaporation would have reduced due to the colder temperature and it would take long for the evaporation to materialize; water source would have to warm for the molecules to excite and change to vapor.

            On researching, it was discovered that the results were due to the perspiration effect on cold water. As a result, the rate of perspiration was higher on the outside of the glass when measurements were being recorded.   After the first trial, there was a need to control the perspiration factor by wrapping the thermos with a cooling towel.  The control affected, however, the cooled sample results were still inconsistent and not what was expected. The outcomes of the three tests displayed consistency in the rate of evaporation across the heated and room temperature water sources.  Therefore, the situation satisfies the aim of the control environment in which to perform the test.

 

Conclusion

The outcomes of the experiment confirmed the hypothesis of heat having an impact on water evaporation rates. The heated samples show the highest percentage of evaporation. The experimental design was a fundamental factor in the scientific inquiry success.  If the trial design was defective and no establishment of a controlled environment, other variables may have influenced the outcomes.  If the air rate, humidity, and airspeed were not controlled, the results of the experiment would be inconsistent.  The analysis is valid since the test environment was monitored and the trial influenced only one variable. In most cases, having multiple uncontrolled variables can invalidate an experiment.   In case, the test was to be re-executed, the perspiration effects of the cooled water samples need to be taken into account and included in the measurements.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Brutsaert, W. (2013). Evaporation into the atmosphere: theory, history and applications (Vol. 1). Springer Science & Business Media: pp. 5-25.

Williams, J. (2013). The AMS weather book: the ultimate guide to America’s weather. Springer Science & Business Media: pp. 10-19.