Population primarily from other parts of Russia than from

Population of the marginal ice zone consists not explicitly of indigenous communities. In the 20thcentury, many areas of traditional land use in Russian Arctic were turned into new industrial areas,concentrating on mining, oil exploration and shipping. Cities of Vorkuta, Norilsk, Tiksi and otherswere established and/or developed in the area. The population of these cities was formed from eitherformer gulag prisoners and young people coming to the north due to soviet “distribution” system,consisting mainly from ethnic Russians and Ukrainians. The current population of newly built ordeveloped settlements is more than 200,000.Remoteness of the newly built areas in combination with hazardous climate and industry triggeredemergence and development of local recreational practice. Tourism and recreation should be studiedthere in a combination because of their high interconnectivity in the region, and main purpose of travelfor local people – within the region or out of it – is to recover and improve their health. Thus, tourismin local communities means not just incoming (cruise) flow but also, or moreover, local recreationalactivities which are caused by infrastructural reasons – economical, geographical and informational.In Russia, where cruise tourism is rarely presented, local recreation takes the larger segment oftourism market. From the marketing point of view, local recreation can be divided into three segments.The first is mass-market – designed for and used by locals. The second is elite, aimed mainlyat non-local tourists (which come primarily from other parts of Russia than from abroad due to legalrestrictions) – e.g. visiting Putorana Plateau. As for outgoing tourism, transport connection of remoteareas with central and southern regions of Russia is strong travel limiting factor due to insufficientcapacity and expensiveness, even being partly subsidized. Consequently, local tourism and recreationare on demand, although the quality of environment, both natural and built, can degrade withproximity to mining and oil exploration areas.In Russian Arctic, in changing economic and social conditions local tourism and recreation hasshowed its resilience: the case of Norilsk Region (Isachenko et al., 2015) shows that it remains anessential part of everyday life and determinant of well-being of region inhabitants, not only due to itsnecessity for healthcare in ecological conditions but also because of underdevelopment of other services,including public transportation (both interregional and local), and ways of spending free time.Thus, tourism and recreation plays important role in sustainability of northern regions as an activitythat helps to balance economic priorities of mining/oil companies, natural environment and humanwell-being.