Paracetamol 1893 [1]. Is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with

Paracetamol was synthesized in 1878 by Morse
and first used clinically by Von Mering in 1887. The molecular weight of
paracetamol is 151.2. It is moderately in water and lipid soluble, it is a weak
organic acid with pKa value of 9.5. it is widely used as the drug and
extensively used as Pain relievers (analgesic) and fever reducer (antipyretics),
In United Kingdom, Acetaminophen also called as paracetamol was introduced to
medicine in 1893 1.
Is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with potent antipyretic and
analgesic, when administered to people, it reduces the levels of prostaglandin
metabolites in urine but does not reduce the synthesis of prostaglandins by
blood platelets. It is only a weak inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in
vitro and appears to have very little anti-inflammatory activity. Although, the
side effects of long-term administration of paracetamol are less severe,
without the gastro toxicity of most non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In
the normal therapeutic process, paracetamol is virtually free of any
significant adverse effect such as Skin rashes and other allergic reaction
occurs. However, an overdose of paracetamol accumulates toxic metabolites that
cause damages to kidney and liver is normally seen only with daily doses
greater than 10 g, whereas the recommended therapeutic dose for adults is 4 g
7. Paracetamol is used for reducing fever in people of all ages. The World
Health Organization (WHO) recommends that paracetamol is used to treat fever in
children only if their temperature is greater than 38.5 °C (101.3 °F). The
adult oral doses of paracetamol for the treatment of pain or fever are 650–1000
mg every 4 hours as needed. The pediatric oral doses are 10–15 mg/kg/dose every
4–6 hour, up to a maximum of 5 doses per day. Liquid paracetamol has time to
peak of about 30 min (54, 71). Extended-release paracetamol has time to peak of
60–120 min, but by 5 hours, 95% of the drug is absorbed (73). Paracetamol use,
both in the first year of life and in children aged 6–7 years, is associated
with an increased risk of symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, and eczema.
Of all the pharmacological interactions of paracetamol, one of the most
important for the odontologist is the combination with alcohol. The toxic
effects of paracetamol in overdose quantities are well recognized but the
occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions to paracetamol is infrequently identified
by consumers and healthcare professionals 12. Although febrile reactions
significantly decreased, prophylactic administration of antipyretic drugs like
paracetamol at the time of vaccination should not be routinely recommended
since antibody responses to several vaccine antigens were reduced 13.
Frequent use of paracetamol in late pregnancy may increase the risk of wheezing
in the offspring