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Abstract
The following report has been researched and conferred on men and women parental leave workplace policies in the United States as a part of a research project investigating how legislation can be modeled or improved based on other countries. For this particular project, takeaways from Sweden will be analyzed for reconstruction of current United States parental leave policy. 
The aim of this research project is to analyze the variety of factors which play a part in the satisfaction of each individual consumer in a free market society such as the United States. Factors such as individual consumption, leisure and labor hours worked are often measured through tools such as a utility function, preference bundle or other curves which help illustrate the worker preference of “work and personal life” balance.
Ultimately, the goal of this research project is to produce a paper which provides a rationale for the inefficiency behind worker effectiveness and the market. Ultimately, it seems that there is a deep-rooted perception that the United States overworks their workers to the point of exhaustion. The best way to analyze over-exhaustion is to analyze the distribution of hours and create a utility curve for the average American worker. Utilizing this distribution, we will combine quantitative analysis of proposed changes along with the qualitative changes through legislation to propose a reconstruction of current United States legislation for parental leave.
Introduction
One of the main problems that faces businesses in the United States is supply of labor and effectiveness of labor. In a capitalist society where the market relies on business, and many of the businesses rely on worker productivity for their business to thrive. Consequently, analysis of worker productivity entails a variety of factors, including the personal satisfaction and leisure of the worker in their home. 
A frequent subject of analysis for economists and the study of political science is the individual utility function related to leisure and consumption. The ultimate goal of the utility function is to measure worker desire against other factors such as hours worked, use of free time and consumption of income.
A useful tool in analyzing the worker’s utility function outside of the workplace is their situation as a family. Often, a worker – male or female – is bound by their duty to take care of their children, their significant others and family members. Many recruitment agencies and staffing agencies for larger companies have been on record as saying that one of the biggest factors in employment decisions is the stability of the home life of the employment candidate. 
One of the more studied topics in the stability of the home life is the situation of the children within the family. With the population growth that the United States has experienced in recent years, the newer workforce has been analyzed to see what trends can be taken about their job prospects and economic future. Naturally, with the rise of younger candidates in most fields of employment, it becomes necessary to analyze the handling of situations such as parental leave, with more families – and consequently more men and women – becoming responsible for children.
For the purposes of this paper, we will examine the current structure of American parental leave laws and research quantitative and qualitative issues with the current structure. In order to analyze which forms of legislation changes and initiatives can address these consequent problems, further analysis will be conducted of Sweden’s parental leave policies, which have been known by experts to create a more sound, fluid preservation of the worker’s ability to go on parental leave.
Limitations of Study
One of the biggest problems that the United States face is the laws of supply and demand. The law of labor supply suggests that individual works in a market make up the total labor supply. They decide how and how much they are willing to provide service, based on the wages offered by a company. When workers predict higher wages from a company, the supply will naturally increase. Likewise, the labor supply will decrease as wages are lowered, as there is less incentive to decrease leisure time with not as much compensation.
While the laws are generally straight-forward in their predictions, it is also important to recognize that not every person will follow the predicted curve that is formed. The supply curve is generally known as an upward-sloping line, with the line often being altered in slope based on the demands of the other individual workers. As explored in the introduction, each person has different opportunities based on their income and can make choices about how to spend their time on leisure, consumption and work. Most of these benefits are often difficult to measure, largely because it is very rare for two workers to have identical balance.
Likewise, labor demand also presents some issues for the overall conclusions and effects of the study. Firms will always need workers to produce goods for consumers. At the same time, the amount of labor that the sum of firms will demand depends on a variety of factors based on their industry. Labor costs, in particular, constitute a lot of the decision-making behind wage considerations, utilizing market wage rates as a marker for how much to offer to their employees. This is clearly weighted with how much labor the firm measures that it will need. Market conditions for the total demand for a product will never be consistent, and thus it becomes exceptionally difficult to make claims as to how much labor is needed consistently for firms over time. As such, any recommendations to employers becomes difficult to measure because to maximize profits, firms will ideally want to hire more workers at lower wages than other groups. At the same time, most firms already know that as they buy up more labor, wages will decrease because of not only the prospect of the costs of another worker but also the competitive level of the demand for labor. As a result, the downward-sloping demand curve begins to look tougher than usual to measure. 
Problems arise for the study if conditions are not accurately measured. When the market wage rate increases, the demand for labor falls and a labor surplus occurs where there are lots of people out of jobs. One of the goals of this paper is to create a temporary loophole which uses the market inefficiency to create more cyclical employment for job seeking populations so as to improve their future job prospects. With the addition of labor into the workforce, it becomes more competitive and drives progress in the economy. Likewise, the paper also wants to avoid the opposite issue of labor shortage, where the market wages have decreased below the equilibrium rate. The labor demand would be greater than the supply, leaving both businesses and the workers in bad shape.
The goal of this paper is to establish a temporary equilibrium and achieve a temporarily perfectly competitive labor market. The economic condition occurs when the supply of labor equals the labor demand in an economy. Otherwise known as “full employment,” the intersection assumes that each individual who wants to work has a job. Ultimately, with the creation of cyclical and “seasonal” employment changes, it seems possible that this paper will not be limited by economic or market forces to labor.
To summarize the findings of the section, it is important to create a proposal which alleviates many of the market forces which affect employment. For the purposes of this paper, with the lens firmly on parental leave policies and how to improve any perceived market inefficiencies from leave, focusing on the laws of economics will help guide and legitimize the findings of the paper. Changes in demand for labor can result from something as small as change in consumer demand for products or government regulations that affect labor costs. The ultimate proposal is to curtail the regulations to the point that it allows for a parent who needs to take time off for their child to do so without putting their company or themselves at a financial disadvantage.
Changes in the supply of labor can also result, with uncontrolled immigration or other issues. With a growing size of labor force and a younger composition of workers, it is becoming more important to address this issue before it gets out of hand. 
Methodology of Experiment
Theoretical Framework – Current US Law
The current legislation on the books is the FMLA – the Family Medical Leave Act – at the federal level in terms of statutes. The law provides up to “12 weeks of unpaid leave during a 12 month period to care for a newborn, adopted or foster child, or to care for a family member, or to attend to the employee’s own serious medical health condition” (Ruhm 1998).
In addition, the law also applies to all private employers with 50 or more employees, making it the most relevant law to analyze when it comes to analyzing workplace conditions across America, as it allows the states to make their own individual mandates based off of deliberately vague regulation (Ruhm 2000). 

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For the purposes of this paper, we will break down each of the types of parental leave and family leave which are offered by employers. The first section of the law to analyze is paid family leave. Only three states – California, New Jersey and Rhode Island – currently offers both paid family and medical leave (Tanaka 2015). New York is scheduled to also offer both forms of leave in 2018, after their individual Paid Family Leave Benefits Law passed during the 2016 fiscal session (Bruning 2017). The programs are funded through employee-paid payroll taxes and administered through their disability programs. 
The following table is a comprehensive index of current family and parental leave conditions and laws in the United States (Kamerman 2017). Many unpaid and paid leave distinctions, as noted in the table, are clearly outlined within the context of each state.