p.p1 Promoter who works along side the publishing company

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Rolling Beats-The music industry -unit 39

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Live performances.
Live performance is a main attraction for many which is why its one of the main way for companies and producers to promote and earn money. It sells the products made and attracts new/old fans to support this artist. There is always a lot of work that goes into a performance, including lots of different jobs for specific sections, working in a team to set up the evening.
Safety is an important part of live performances and is usually the one that is concentrated on first. This includes looking at The event safety guide (second edition) material from the Health and Safety Executive so that the crowd and artists are protected under the law and if something happens they have measures and systems to deal with it. There is also the purple guide that helps event organizers manage health and safety, largely at bigger scale events.

“It is a legal requirement for employers employing five or more people to produce a written health and safety policy.” -Safety guide by HIE

“to minimise risks during the build-up, ensure that the venue is designed for safety.” 

The safety management looks at what type of venue it is and what precautions need to be made, There are ‘phases’ in which the show is done in. the ‘build-up’ plans the venue design, workers, stages and contractors.
 he ‘load in’ is installing and the delivery of equipment to the set, safely.
The ‘show’ involves creating a crowd management and transport strategy. This also includes fire hazard safety, first aid and major incident plans are laid out.
The ‘load out’ is the removal of all the equipment brought to the set at the end of the show.
The ‘breakdown’ is the control risks being assessed like taking down the stage and collecting rubbish.
Crowd management is handled with barriers, body guards and setting out areas of where people are to go and what to do. Making sure these places are in line with what the companies want and how they want it. Promotion is also very important and there is a specified Promoter who works along side the publishing company to get the word out there. They do this through social media, word of mouth, other concerts and websites. To get people to want to come it has to be directed at a certain audience for the best reaction and tickets being sold, the type of artist has to blend well with the kind of promoter chosen as they have to also work together a lot in their genre and style. 

Setting up is done by a team and led by a stage manager who orders everything to go in a certain order and way on the day, they over see everything and work with the technicians to layout all the technical and stage equipment in accordance to what kind of performance it is, whether its a small theatre or a large auditorium.

Tour/event management covers the artist management and retail as well as the performing rights. This means that security for the artist if they need it is sorted out and their roadies are hired and sent to set up for them. The artist management may do the promoting and be their roadie as well if it is a smaller band or artist. They also sort out the performers timetable and money cut. They work with backstage to make sure everything is correct for the artist and is where it should be, they also have to balance all the different features to make it run smoothly. Different things can affect the sales like how well known they are. An example of a promoter is Paul Charles is a very big promoter and puts on large scale gigs and has been doing it for many years.

Dera Shelton Sony/ATV music publishing
Concert promotion.
“Promote as soon as you have booked, depending on level of artist, artist can promote themselves. Have a budget set for promoting and other things make sure you know where all the money goes into a live performance.”
 “Existing fans purchase tickets, if artist has established emailing list, send out details about the show. How where and when to purchase tickets, email blasts used periodically to let people know about the show.” 
(Attentive email – 1 month, 2 weeks, 1 week, 1 day before show; no spam.)

 Plans to expand a fan base by reaching out to new fans through the newspapers, magazines targeting the correct media demographics, this provides a fan base and a confident standing for the artist to work off of. Provide a promo package for a station/newspaper, posters as an effective tool to get word out. Each artist is different so you have to adjust the plan differently for each artist by using local radio stations, promo spots and interviews. The manager organizes these things as the artist promoter if in a smaller indie records company.

> ‘it is best to start promoting of the show as soon as the artist is booked’
Interacting with the fans by creating events, videos, giveaways, like and share a page which spreads the word. Absolutely no last minute notice like an hour or two before show because people wont come as they are booked or its just too late of a notice.
> ‘do not make the mistake of last minute notice’
> ‘a targeted plan and budget are essential for successfully promoting a show’
> ’email blasts can be used periodically’

Plans to expand a fan base by reaching out to new fans through the newspapers, magazines targeting the correct media demographics, this provides a fan base and a confident standing for the artist to work off of. Provide a promo package for a station/newspaper, posters as an effective tool to get word out. Each artist is different so you have to adjust the plan differently for each artist by using local radio stations, promo spots and interviews. 

The manager organizes these things as the artist promoter if in a smaller indie records company. They also need to get performing rights for the venue and get publishing and recording companies to work with them. Artist management handles this. If performing rights aren’t there then they cant perform there and the other companies cannot work with them either at the event due to this. It covers all the legal matters and makes sure the event is within the boundaries of the law and so that no accusations can be made against them, also used in case of double bookings. 

Record companies. (produces manages recording, hires talent)
They find new talent and start to produce this talent. They then promote and sell this talent by distributing it to the public. They are a marketing company for the artists in the world. There are different types of companies, the major and the independent. There are now 3 major companies as opposed to the original 6. These are: Sony, Warner and universal. They control roughly 88% of the market in the world collectively. They help market the artist publishings and get heard in the crowd, they have a long term or short term contract with the talent, and in return the artists get royalties earned from their recordings.
However as seen with Prince and Warner Bros. in 1977, disputes can happen over the artist wanting freedom to reign their work, overall I think record companies are supportive and are very good at publishing if you are careful around the small print and who you trust to take care of your music for you. 

A quiet or smaller company with less conflict, would be, KOBALT, they are monetizing money and handle all the transactions for the artist, they could slowly take over the record company scene, potentially, due to their policies. They make things transparent and easy to use with updated technology, they try to make everything paid to the talent they scout. They also market and distribute to the talent so artist don’t need to give away their rights to earn money. 

Record companies look after the Talent scouting, promotion and copyright enforcement which means the artist will sign a contract with them after applying or being scouted. This helps both sides of the arrangement out as the record labels gain revenue off of the artists gains and the artist, in turn gets promoted and protected with trademarking for their brand and such. Of course the company could rip the artist off on a contract which is why the small print must always be read. Technology has changed an awful lot over the years and the internet has forced the record companies to update their way of reaching out to people effectively. This means across social media, television, websites and not just radios and the billboard in the high-street. Because of the internet a lot of artists have gone into the internet to promote themselves and as such have bypassed the record companies through smaller, handier methods (like Instagram) with other tinier companies, promoting directly to their fan base and getting word out online. This does however, mean, that they don’t get the trademark or legal licensing from the bigger companies as its harder to gain that from a smaller company as its harder to get noticed and has a relaxed style of working anyway meaning that not everything runs as smoothly as a bigger company. 

A stands for ‘artist and repertoire’ this title means that they are the person who looks for the talent and focuses on finding the next new ‘x factor’ in the crowd of musicians. These days they may do lots of other things in the industry as well such as attending shows for their company, and passing this information along the chain of command. They will also book recording sessions in a studio for the company after the artist is signed. The A rep has been around for ages as discovering new musicians was very difficult in, say, the 50’s and when Record Labels were absolutely massive they played a huge role in getting the undiscovered talent on stage. Of course now artists can find their own way online and don’t need an A rep to scout them or a record company for that matter but the companies are still at large in distributing music as they have updated with the times and the A agent has not become useless by a long mile, there are still searches to be done and talent to be found. Recording studios are booked and help to publish a clean, polished piece of work for the public. Ready for distribution which is also handled by the publishing companies through internet sales.

 The good thing about a record company is that your song is protected and whenever it is used there needs to be royalties paid towards the companies and artist for the use of that song, depending on how popular they are, is how much anything costs/is earned towards that artist. On streaming websites its quite hard to keep all that music in line and under proper copyright laws as there is so much to go through and check. Digital right management takes care of this task, taking down illegal downloads and working against forgery and infringement of copyright laws. PRS has a section on this called ‘protecting music’ :
“we’re fighting music piracy and tackling the changes that digital has brought to the industry”
The reason this is needed is because otherwise no one benefits in the companies and music cannot be produced any more due to the lack of revenue gained from sales.

music publishing companies (manages musical composition, written by etc. marketing to record)
This side of the music industry protects and produces songs for the artist. This has developed over the years; as the age of technology overtook, literal records and high-street shops crashed leaving a hole in the market to fill which is when the internet came into fruition and publishing had to adapt to the times. It used to be and still is the protection of music but now it is a lot more fair to the artist, at least, depending on where you go.
Nowadays there are companies out there like the Music Union (MU for short) who help give musicians the rights and fair use they deserve when in the industry, for a small price. Piracy is a huge problem in today’s world where its so easy to get your hands on free, easy to download music which doesn’t support the artist or companies at all, there are laws and guidelines against it. A team of people who work against this, take it off of the internet and prevent from it happening again across multiple websites.

I asked a music union representative, Helen Cale, about the Music union and how she handles people in the industry.

? Do you keep track of each members’ activities? E.g.: composing, performing or

With approximately 30,000 members all together (roughly 11,000 of whom are London members,
and looked after by the London Region Office where I work) it would be difficult to monitor
everybody individually!
When a member first joins the MU they can tell us about themselves and their careers – it’s then
really up to them how often they update us about what they’re doing, and how their career is
progressing. We do keep track of every time each member makes contact with us – it makes it
easier to help people if we can look them up on our system and see what sort of advice they’ve
needed before.

? How does the Union interact with its members on a day to day basis?
We make it as easy as possible for our members to interact with us, via the MU website,
social media, email, phone. In my role, the vast majority of interactions I have with
members on a daily basis is via email. The different regional branches offer opportunities in
their locality for members to engage, train, network etc. For our London members, we run
regular Events, Socials, Workshops, Training Days, and Advice Sessions. Members also come
into the MU HQ for meetings.

? What inspired you to work for The Musicians’ Union?
I am a classical violinist by training, but after 17 years of freelancing and teaching, I realised I
needed a change of direction. I’ve always been very interested in politics, and a big
supporter of the Trade Union movement, so when this job opportunity arose, it made
perfect sense to apply. I really enjoy helping people, and the fact that I am still working
within the world of music makes it a really good fit for me. It’s interesting work, varied and
challenging, and the MU staff are a really committed, inspiring bunch of people. I would
highly recommend working for/getting involved with a Trade Union.

? What are the long term benefits of joining the Musicians’ Union?
The long term benefits are the continued improvements to the lives and careers of
musicians. By joining together through the MU, musicians who would otherwise have no
easy way of being heard can amplify their voices and have a real impact. The MU influences
the music industry, as well as policy in Parliament, and other governments abroad.
From my own personal perspective, I would say that being an MU member (I joined up in
2000 after graduating from music college) always gave me huge peace of mind, and a sense
of solidarity. Knowing that you have an organisation looking out for you, that’s there to
help whenever you have a problem is enormously reassuring, especially for someone who is
working in the precarious world of freelancing.
A detailed list of all of the individual benefits of being an MU member can be found here:

The MU is an inspiring place to have as a musician, in my opinion, as it gives us the opportunity to get involved and not worry about the possible consequences if something goes wrong.
Publishers can give out contracts and licensing to the digital services so the public can buy it straight away from streaming services after the artist has completed their work and want to sell it. This makes it easier for the artist to get known and for people to access it, more sales on places like iTunes and Spotify.

Becca Gatrell is the head of film and television creative at universal music publishing and has said a few things about the publishing industry and how they can promote it:
“A piece of music used alongside a piece of art/ picture- Anyway we can get it out. It can travel, be performed, copied, in a well-managed environment.”
“It’s normal for an album to be replicated, to transcribe it to guitar, selling them online or in high streets. Production music is in everything- theme tunes, adverts, ringtones. Feature films/trailers.”
“To reproduce a piece of music is easily sold worldwide as its quick and easy to budget, easily editable and music users can try it before they buy it so there is no risk.”
She touched on a few subjects in which an artist can earn money and be sold to audiences through the internet. She says that having it on the internet is easily sold and spread through lots of different services, pushing the music through different sources like feature films or live performances. This means that the artist can earn the revenue off of their material with licensing from the publishing companies, some companies are unfair and do not give the artist their dues for their work as they take a large percentage of the profits.  However they do cover for the songwriters and composers of the music letting them have their dues. They also find the composers and have a specific plan to cover all of them in the contract so they do get paid and can get insurance to keep working in the industry. 

Artist management.
The main roles and responsibilities of an artist management are are allowing the talent to focus solely on creating the music. So they will find shows and other talent to work with, get the correct licensing and contracts for the artist to do what they want to. They do the business side of things, filling the roles that the artist needs to have to perform; like promoter, accountant or agent. This is usually how its run in the smaller independent labels but in the bigger labels like Warner or Sony the manager supervises other people who are employed by the musician.
The managers instead have oversight and ensure the essentials are there for the artist like advertising, PR campaigns, getting paid and tours are running smoothly. 

PR is the public relations sector, the interaction between the artist and the public and how to promote themselves. Marc Oswald explains in a video what an Artist manager does and why. He says “our responsibility is to basically articulate the vision of the artist throughout all the different aspects of their career. Whether its touring, television merchandising recording or business running accurately.” so an artist manager needs to be the general supervisor over everything so that the artist can concentrate on their own work and not have to deal with all the extra bits that could distract and bring them down. An artist needs to have the correct tools for the job and have the space to work in, an artist manager provides that for them.

Jess Dorenfeld talked about the role of an artist management as he worked with Ozzy Osbourne and is the personal manager of the band Boston. The band got no.1 billboard charting album and a 25 million dollar grossing tour under his management.  “An artist should have some vision of where they want to go, management will orchestrate that path.” He talks about how the artist and manager have to get along as you’re spending 24/7 with them working on the next big hit and where to go and what to do, they manage every aspect of your schedule and plans. The artist has to trust that the manager will make the right decision on their part and its a working relationship of communication. 
PRS–music royalties -protecting and licensing music so that artists get royalties paid to them through this website and company. Is controlled by manager allows artist and manager to be free from accidents and not being covered and allows them to get paid for their work, fairly. 
PR–public relations- dedicated to working with the companies to promote the artist to the public and let the public know whats going on with new and classic artists, what music is popular and where to buy/install it. 
They also manage touring, the safety, tickets, backstage, security, travel, licensing and renting out the arena. Which is essential as an artist usually gains the most revenue off of a tour that goes well. 
Marc Oswald said “Imagine a wagon wheel, the artist is the centre, the manager is the screws and the grease, the spokes are the individual parts of the artists career. If spokes are all the same length then it runs smoothly 24/7 if one of the spokes is breaking apart then the wheel breaks and career fails. Everything needs to work.” He analyzed being an artist manager very well, using this metaphor to explain how important a role the artist manager is in the music industry world. It is the artists right to know what the manager is doing with their work and music, what their timetable is like and what their social websites are like and how they get promoted. The manager should only do things on behalf of the artist and not decide important decisions with consulting with the artist first, visa versa so everything runs smoothly.