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The Korean conflict originated from the rivalry between the United States and Soviet Union as well as the struggle between the left and right wing forces in domestic arena after Korea’s liberation from the Japanese colonial rule back in 1945. At the conclusion of the second World War in 1945, the nation of Korea (which had been controlled by Japan during the war) was divided into two different sectors. North Korea was administered by the Soviet Union while South Korea was governed by the United States of America. The Soviet Union assisted North Korea in establishing a communist government, led by Kim Il Sung. On the other hand, the United States assisted South Korea in creating a capitalist government.
 The conflict in the Korean peninsula was initiated with the establishment of separate governments in 1948; the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK).  The conflict further intensified by the 1950 Korean War. On June 25th of the year 1950, Kim II Sung attempted to unify Korea under the communist rule. He initiated an invasion of South Korea, with the assistance of the Soviet Union. And the United States, as well as many other nations, came to the assistance of South Korea. In October of 1950, China entered the war as well, along side the North Koreans. Later on, the United States and South Korea were able to drive North Korea back to the 38th parallel. However, after three year war, little progress was made.. The war killed more than 3 million Koreans. But, by the end of it, the countries had returned to their initial states; divided along the 38th parallel. Though both the countries were (and still are) too immersed into the conflict, there have been several attempts to settle it and to establish a peace system between the two Koreas. 
The Armistice Agreement of 1953, and the July 4th Joint Communiqué of 1973, and the North-South Basic Agreement of 1992, and the June 15th Joint Declaration of 2000 are all examples of previous attempts to solve the conflict (or, to be specific, try to minimize it’s effects). However, without settling the conflict structure, it will be difficult to build a peace system in the Korean peninsula, and ultimately achieve unification. 

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The end of the Cold War during the 90s had a vast impact of the Korean Peninsula. The United States deployed nuclear weapons on the peninsula. During 1991, an agreement was adopted by both of the Korean governments called ‘the Declaration of Nuclear-Free Korean Peninsula’. In 1992, North Korea concluded the safeguard accords with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). After that, the IAEA launched a nuclear investigation to North Korea. Furthermore, tensions between the United States and North Korea started to become more apparent. Tensions arose because of the issue of the scope and level of the nuclear investigation in the Fall of 1922. Appropriately, the United States carried out the Team Spirit exercise (a joint military operation exercise between South Korea and the US), which was later called off in the 90s. In protest, North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Afterwards, the the situation worsened and led to a war between the two states. Subsequent, in 1994, the Agreed Framework (Geneva Agreement) was signed. The three major agreements were: North Korea would freeze nuclear facilities, and both states would move towards and motivate full normalisation of relations, and the US would provide North Korea with 2 light water and reactors to solve electricity issues. However, the US violated the agreement. The light water reactors were to be fully established by 2003, but the construction was intentionally delayed. Moreover, relations were not normalised. The US continued to give military threats North Korea when it was supposed to instead  guarantee that North Korea does not use nuclear weapons against Pyongyang. After the 9/11 incident, the Bush administration made a stronger position on the small country. Bush named North Korea as a part of the “axis of evil” and considered a pre-emptive attack against North Korea.

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The invasion of South Korea by forces of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea on 25 June 1950 was one of the defining moments of the Cold War. The USSR provided resources such as arms, food, and financial aid to North Korea. North Korea had sent its troops for advanced training in Russia. Since the Soviet Union was fighting the Cold War against the United States, it was beyond pleased when a communist country, North Korea, attacked a democracy, South Korea. By siding with North Korea, the Soviet Union defeats a democracy that was propagated by the United States. Moreover, the United States was fully aware that since the Soviet Union had supplied all necessary equipments to North Korea in preparation for the war, the was would be a powerful boost for the communist propaganda. Hence, the United States launched an offensive to retake South Korea. Though the Soviets had provided all aid, the had not physically joined the war. Unlike the Americans. After the war, both sides had decided to split Korea. Also, the United States suffered immense losses where the Soviet Union’s losses were negligible and a communist government was legally in power (seeing that Korea was not communist prior to the war). Furthermore, the war led to new allies of the USSR: China and North Korea (all against the United States).

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Many believe that China played a huge role in favor of the USSR during the Korean War and that the purpose of China participating in the war is to the expand the Chinese Civil War. During the Chinese Civil War, three campaigns occurred. The second campaign was called the Huai Hai. The Huai Hai was a turning point during the civil war, which made the failure Kuomintang (a Chinese political party also known as the KMT) a huge issue at that time. Last on, Joseph Stalin (Former General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union) had urged Mao Zedong (Former Chairman of the Communist Party of China) not to cross the Changing River to destroy the KMT. If the Communist Party of China obeys the USSR’s orders, the Professional Regulation Commission would be another part of East Germany that the USSR would benefit from; a separated China would benefit the USSR. Moreover, it is noteworthy that China owns many more harbors in good conditions than the USSR. Before the Korean War, the entire Korea was occupied by the United States and northeastern China became the forefront of the ongoing battle between capitalism and communism, which gave the USSR the absolve to hold the Chinese harbors. This strategic and detailed goal elaborates as to why the USSR never physically participated in the Korean War. It also justifies the USSRs aid to China during the war: it was hoping that China would fail in the war. However, the victory of the two Chinese campaigns during the Chinese Civil War ensured that China would back North Korea during the war. If the USSR had never provided resources and aides to China, it might’ve lost north Korea. Furthermore, when the Chinese Volunteer Army had vanquished and conquered Seoul (the capital of South Korea), the USSR ceased providing aid, fearing that it will lose its control over China.

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