Overview So let’s start off by defining what type 2 diabetes is, diabetes is a lifelong disease, with exceptions, effectively it is because that person has a high blood glucose. However it is important to distinguish between types of diabetes, there is type 1 and type 2 diabetes, along with gestational diabetes for pregnant women however it usually disappears after pregnancy type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system kills all the cells that are producing insulin, because of the lack on insulin this means that the body cannot absorb glucose which the body needs for energy. However diabetes 2 occurs when your pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin and doesn’t use it effectively, this is called insulin resistance. As diabetes 2 continues to get worse and worse, the amount of insulin that the pancreas produces decreases and this is called insulin deficiency. However the main difference between the 2 types of diabetes is that diabetes 1 cannot be prevented. However, diabetes 2 can be prevented however if don’t have a healthy diet or lifestyle, you are obese, and you are not exercising, then you have a chance of getting type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2 is also the most common diabetes with 90% of people who have diabetes having type 2 diabetes. Syntoms So what are some symptoms of type 2 diabetes. One symptoms is thirst as the excess sugar which is building up inside your body is pulling out fluid from the tissues. So this may leave you thirsty and want you to urinate and drink more. Increased hunger is another symptom as there is not enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, so this may cause you muscles and organs to have little energy left and so you will also be fatigued as well and hungry. Blurred vision is another symptom and fluid may be pulled from your eyes as a result in excess sugar in the blood. This will cause you eyesight to be partially impaired. The last symptom you might encounter is weight gain as your body has lost some of its ability to metabolize glucose, so now the body has to use alternative fuels which are stored in the fat and muscles. So this means that calories are lost because excess glucose is released in respiration. Prevention and treatmentAs we have seen, unlike diabetes 1, diabetes 2 can be prevented. People with diabetes 2 usually have weight problems, this is because people who are obese add more pressure on the body’s system to produce insulin and control blood sugar levels, and as we have already seen diabetes is caused when the pancreas decreases the amount of insulin produced, thus any added pressure on the pancreas increases the chance of developing diabetes especially if the increase fat is around your stomach. If you have a BMI over 30 then this means that you are obese, in which case you have a much higher chance of getting type 2 diabetes.So in order to reduce your excess fat you should exercise at least 4-5 hours a week, you should eat healthy and avoid food with high quantities of fat, avoid large portions which contain a high amount of calories, also try to reduce your sugar amount by drinking water instead of soft beverages. Now to treat diabetes you need to have a healthy lifestyle which consists of a low fat and carb diet, and a healthy amount of exercise. Now although type 2 diabetes is often a lifelong disease and there have been exceptions, and the cases where people have overcome diabetes type 2 has been when they have taken all the treatment. So embracing a low carb diet can treat it as if you lower the amount of carbs then you immediately lower the blood glucose levels and also impacts your blood sugar levels. This is because the carbohydrates that have been metabolised turn into glucose. Another way to combat diabetes is by adopting a low sugar calorie diet. Researches at Newcastle University took in 11 people who suffered from diabetes, they then put them on low calorie diets for 8 weeks in which they restricted their calorie intake to 600 per day. After 8 months 7 out of the 11 people successfully combated the disease. This is because low calorie diets typically release excess fat that is blocking the pancreas, so now the pancreas can perform its function and produce insulin. Another way of treating diabetes is by regularly testing your blood glucose levels by doing this you can, help understand your diabetes; improve control of your blood glucose levels; and can actually motivate you to keep on continuing your treatment if you can track how much progress you have made. The last way of fighting type 2 diabetes is by using medicine as it is the easiest but also best way as medicine helps your body best respond to insulin. The most common type of medicine used is Metformin, metamorphin is effective as it helps people who are type 2 diabetes respond better to insulin which they need in order to fight it,. It also lowers the amount of sugar that is absorbed by the intestine, furthermore it also lowers the amount of sugar that is created by the liver. Other medicines which are used to contest diabetes include; byetta; victoza; bydureon. However it is important to note that medicine alone won’t completely cure you from diabetes, you must use it along with a healthy diet and moderate amount of exercise. So a common theme here is that in order to properly overcome type 2 diabetes you must lose weight as that will increase the amount of insulin your pancreas can absorb. Foods that should be avoided and those that should be encouraged and why ?Foods that should be avoided are ones with a high amount of carbohydrates, this is because it can easily be broken down into glucose in the body, and it can raise your blood sugar level. However proteins and fat don’t actually affect your blood sugar level, however eating these in excess will increase the fat in your body and this could lead to blockage of the pancreas. But protein should be encouraged as it is very good for diabetics as it contributes to glucose productions without having a big effect on the blood sugar levels.So foods that should be restricted are foods like pasta,milk,sweets,chocolate, but also fruit because it contains a lot of sugar, and all these other foods are high in carbs. But also fatty foods should also be discouraged such as, burgers, chips, milkshakes, red meat. Foods high in protein such as, fish, beef, tofu, and cheese should also be discouraged are big contributors to weight gain. Food that diabetics should eat are, asparagus as it is a non starchy vegetable that only contains 20 calories. Brown rice, quinoa, oatmeal are also foods that should be encouraged as it contains a low amount of whole grains. Diabetes should also eat fresh fruit however only small portions, and healthy fats and a high amount of vitamin E, such as, nuts, fish, eggs, and cheese. Furthermore fish is very good as it provides a good amount of protein and omega 3 which can help diabetics hearts. Daily Meal planVeggie omelet (276 calories) Bagel and cream cheese (300 calories)205g of tuna salad (383 calories)Swordfish steak and spinach salad (431 calories)So as you can see from the food there is a lot of vegetables, cheese, fish, and salad which is what diabetics should be eating. First of all the veggie omelet contains only 1g of saturated fat, no grams of sugar, and only 12g of protein. The omlet also contains lots of vegetables and eggs which are good for diabetics. Moving on the the second part of breakfast which is bagel and cream cheese. In total this only contains 4g of fat and only 14g of protein, furthermore cream cheese is good for diabetics as it has a low low glycemic index , this means that it releases glucose slowly and will not trigger any significant blood glucose spikes. For lunch I chose 205g of tuna salad, salad obviously contains low fat and is also considered to have high amounts of vitamin E, and tuna is considered a low and healthy fat as it is a fish, so tuna salad ticks all the boxes for diabetics to eat. For dinner I opted for a swordfish steak and spinach salad. Spinach is very good for diabetics as it contains a low amount of fat and carbs, but also contains a high amount of fibre and most importantly, Vitamin E which is crucial for diabetics. Furthermore the swordfish provides us with protein and omega 3 which can help diabetics hearts, furthermore it provides a good amount of vitamin D.