Operant conditioning is a well-known theory that is defined as a type of learning process in which a different voluntary of behaviour occurs and is joined with a punishment, reinforcement can make the behaviour perhaps most punishment that makes it less likely to re appear (sparks, n.d). Moreover, actions also known to be a volunteer behaviours can be managed by organism for this can include: running, skydiving and essay writing (sparks, n.d). This theory was discovered by a well- known psychologist B.F. Skinner, also followed by a similar theory ‘ Law of effect’ that was first discovered by Edward Thorndike (sparks, n.d). B.F Skinner educated people in a way that the theory is important to be looked at in a scientific way, he created a tool known as the Skinner box which was achievable, this allowed and proved the complete control of the organism environment alongside the behaviours that were available to it and then punishment and reinforcement would be given to the organism (sparks, n.d). Skinner done in depth investigation on how the type of punishment and reinforcement given and the rate of both affected the rate of learning (sparks, n.d). For example, one of the experiments that was directed by B.F Skinner was the pigeon that was placed into a Skinner Box and this box had to be kept sustainable with the light, noise, and temperature. However, the box had two things that would work in the box which were the lever and a hopper and they would deliver the food to the animal every time the lever was pressed by the pigeon. Moreover, because the rat likes to move around quite often it could potentially receive food unaware that they pressed the lever. The pigeon would be left in the box by Skinner and then he would again and again measure how often the pigeon would have pressed the lever over a variety of different times. The repetition would be a strong sign of ability and conditioning of the behaviour. This would then be duplicated with other organism (sparks, n.d). There are two terms that need to be understood in the process of the theory operant conditioning: Reinforcement this is a consequence that makes an on-going behaviour more likely to occur for example, by achieving something good. Punishment this is a consequence that makes an on-going behaviour likely to occur There are two terms of consequences such as positive outcome which includes giving something to the organism and a negative consequence would be to take something away which could be down to do something bad (sparks, n.d). Example: A student’s teacher in primary school would be using positive reinforcement if they give students stickers or other bonus for their good work, however the teachers would be using a negative increase of reinforcement if they say “unless you do coursework assigned you will get detention”(sparks, n.d).This is noticeable in computer games for example, positive reinforcement would be completing a game which will drive individuals playing the games to completing another game(sparks, n.d). This could potentially explain some addictions. In addition to this Operant conditioning described another role as a secondary matter which was phobias. Prevention learning can occur when the source is being avoided, however, phobia contributes to a negative outcome for the behaviour from the human by reducing any sort of mental health occurring for example: anxiety. This can improve and maintain phobias once they have been learned by us. (sparks, n.d).