On and young women perceive male pleasure to be

the other hand, Wight (1992 in a review of the existing British literature
regarding young people’s heterosexual behaviour, also noted that both young men
and young women perceive male pleasure to be central to sexual encounters. In
fact, feminist writers have sustained that women’s sexual identity has been
socially constructed to complement this dominant ideology in the society.
Social ‘norms’ have been formed whereby this ideology is considered to be both
natural and desirable and obstacles to
equality are started in women’s own conceptions of sexuality as well as
pressures from men. This does not necessarily mean that women are not sexually
active, however, as Pollack (1985) maintains, it does imply that women’s
behaviour is, or should be, tailored primarily towards men’s desires and
actions. If this is the case, it follows that women’s choices regarding sex are
constrained by the context of differential power relations. Many studies have
found (for example; Maxwell and Boyle 1995, Holland et al. 1998), condoms
particularly fall into the ‘undesirable’ contraceptive method category as it
prevents male sexual pleasure.

In addition, the power differential
seems to be an even greater problem in long-term and steady relationships. This
is because women find it more difficult to oppose direct pressure from men and
the effects of disciplinary power is even more apparent. It is especially
difficult to resist pressure to have sex in long-term relationships,
particularly, when the women feel themselves as financially, emotionally, and
socially dependant on their partner, so the risks involved in refusing and
possibly losing the relationship and the partner are obviously greater. As
Ramazanoglu, (2004, p.11) puts it:

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women do have a critical consciousness of the embodiment of their sexuality,
and are comfortable with their own desires, manifesting such desire could be
experienced as directly threatening men’s power to define the nature of the
relationship. The intrusion of her body into his desires (rather than his
desire into her body) could contribute to fears of ending the relationship, or
could reinforce men’s control. Much individual resistance appears to be
dependent on a specific context or relationship and could not be sustained
outside this.

On the other hand, Holland et al.
(1992) goes on to explain that trust keeps feelings of fear aside and therefore
acts a protection for the relationship. Since trust is linked to caring and
meaningful relationships, women ignore the risks to give their relationship
more credibility.

Feminists argue that these put women
as the primary consumers of contraception. Therefore, allows for a portrayal of
feminine and heterosexual identities. In this light, developments around female
contraceptive methods allow women to plan and control their own fertility
without depending on men. This reduces expectations around who should be
responsible for using contraception, therefore, reduces joint responsibility.
Terry & Braun (2011) argue that men already do not have an active role in
the contraceptive use and not really interested. Oudshoorn (2004), on the other
hand, concludes that feminisation of contraceptive use and such developments
limit the space for men to be involved so developments should also be made for
different forms of male contraception.

Furthermore, issues around unintended
teenage pregnancies are mainly dependent on the level of sexual activity and
how contraceptive methods are used as well as the lack of contraceptive use.
(Trussell, 2004). Therefore, sex education and information related to
contraceptive use are also very important to prevent unwanted teenage
pregnancies which often leads to abortion. Teenagers as well as adult women,
often express a sense of not being able to get pregnant which can also explain
the reason for non-use of contraception. In relation to this, sexual competence
during intercourse among teenagers has been measured and defined as containing
four elements: regret, willingness, autonomy, and the use of contraception at
first intercourse (Wellings et al 2001). Lack of sexual competence has been
reported to increase with decreasing age. In addition, 91% of British teenage
girls, aged 13-14 at first intercourse, have been defined as sexually
incompetent (Wellings et al 2001). Use of emergency contraception has been
considered by some to encourage the risk-taking behaviour. However recent
studies revealed the opposite, that the use of emergency contraception can also
increase the use of condoms (Walker et al 2004). When the first contraceptive
pills introduced, serious side-effects were frequent and included
thromboembolism, jaundice, coagulation disorders, weight gain, low libido, and
psychological side effects (Böttiger et al 1980). Regardless of this, the
frequency of discontinuation, especially due to psychological side effects, has
unfortunately increased (Lindh et al 2009). Another important reason for
discontinuation of a contraceptive method in teenage females is opposition from
the partner (Vaughan et al 2008).


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