Nobel Smith and Guy Montag maintain meaningless lives, following

Nobel Prize Winner and Spanish poet, Juan Ramón Jiménez once said, “If they give you ruled paper, write the other way”. This quotation perfectly illuminates the aspects of dystopian novels, 1984 and Fahrenheit 451, giving the reader a glimpse of what the stories are about: Rebellion. 1984 by George Orwell and Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury are two contrasting novels that explore the theme of revolution. Through character development, both pieces of fiction portray protagonists who turn against their authorities. Winston Smith and Guy Montag maintain meaningless lives, following the everyday routines their society undergoes. One day, both characters become fully aware of the fact that their existence has become mindless. Winston and Montag begin to question how their society runs and whether or not everything they have ever known even makes sense.  Stuck in a bubble where governments force them to conform to a black and white world, Smith and Montag learn to break free from society’s idea of a perfect civilization. Although Bradbury and Orwell created very different stories with contrasting endings, they both developed protagonists with similar character trajectories. The two novels are similar in the sense that they are set in dystopian worlds, they also have a character in each that share common characteristics and plans. Winston and Guy both run into a female friend that changes their perspective on life. On the path to rebellion, the protagonists are fortunate to have met women who have unique outlooks on the way their society runs: Julia and Clarisse. Their opinions vary from the way Smith and Montag think, opening their eyes. In 1984, Winston Smith meets Julia at their place of work: The Ministry of Truth. Initially, they met indirectly, both just glancing at the other, not making an effort to interact. When they meet again after the Two Minutes Hate, Julia “falls” down, slipping Winston a note when he helps her up. This tiny gesture is what starts their romantic getaways to the room above Mr. Charrington’s shop. Growing closer to Julia is one of the many factors that adds to Smith’s journey to rebellion. Julia grows to become not only his lover, but also his ally to oppose Big Brother. Julia’s personality contrasts Winston’s, in the sense that she is optimistic, practical, free-spirited and intuitive. She claims, “I hate purity, I hate goodness! I don’t want any virtue to exist anywhere. I want everyone to be corrupt to the bones” (Orwell 132). The sound of this makes Winston realize there is someone else out there who wants to rebel against The Party just as much as he does. Julia is someone who sleeps with Party members just to get a thrill; someone who is the exact opposite of Winston.  Winston, on the other hand, is contemplative and rebellious. Although both characters have a desire to break free, the reasons behind their behaviour vary; Julia rebels for her sake, whereas Winston rebels for the sake of the future. Julia, as well as Winston, hates the Party; she refers to them as “swines” (Orwell. 131). Julia played a major role in helping him rebel because of her hatred for the government as well. She encouraged Winston to escape from his life. Similar to, Winston Smith in 1984,  Bradbury’s character, Guy Montag in Fahrenheit 451 also finds himself exploring new perspectives on life, through his neighbour, Clarisse McClellan. Clarisse is a seventeen year old girl who stands out from everyone who lives near her. She loves nature, hates violence and TV and she only likes to interact with others if there is a connection between them. People like Clarisse are thought of as threats because of their unique likings. Clarisse is fascinated by strange things that do not always make sense, which is why she is drawn to Guy; he is a fireman, yet he burns rather than extinguishes. Clarisse introduces him to the world’s potential for beauty with her curiosity. She opens his eyes, making him realize how empty his life is. Clarisse asks Guy pervasive questions constantly; while she is just curious, her comments make him truly think: “Are you happy?” (Bradbury 7). This innocent, simple question troubled the fireman, leading him to overthink it. Clarisse encouraged Montag to rebel by ask questions he never thought to ask or worry about. Even though she is very curious and consistent with her wonderings, Clarisse never seeks out any of the answers to them. Montag, on the other hand, he goes against the justice system to look for answers.  Clearly, dystopian novels, Fahrenheit 451 and 1984 each include a protagonist who encounters a female that ends up being a great part in their success. Julia and Clarisse unknowingly changed Winston and Montag’s life, showing them into a whole new perspective on the world; what’s really important and how to achieve ultimate rebellion.    1984’s Winston Smith and Fahrenheit 451’s Guy Montag both rebel against their government through the use of books. In both societies, people have a negative outlook on the concept of books. In Oceania, the government eliminated all traces of books for the purpose that no one could read about history. Winston was drawn to the idea of self-expression; he hated the fact that his freedom to think and feel was taken away.  In the first chapter of 1984, Winston purchases a diary from Mr. Charrington’s shop: “It was a peculiarly beautiful book. Its smooth creamy paper, a little yellow by age, was of a kind that had not been manufactured for at least forty years past” (Orwell 8). Owning a journal is a very dangerous act, being caught can result in a punishment as extreme as death or forced-labour camp. With a rush of adrenaline, Winston picks up the diary and left the shop. During the Two Minutes Hate,  “He had carried it guiltily home in his briefcase. Even with nothing written in it, it was a compromising possession” (Orwell 8). By owning a journal, it not only went against The Party’s rule of individual thought, it fed his desire for rebellion. In a way, Winston’s diary kept him “sane”. It was a space for him to vent and collect his thoughts, another tool to help him rebel against Big Brother. The contents of Winston’s diary are composed of Thoughtcrime; the utmost offence in Oceania. If the diary was ever found or heard of from The Party, Winston has a list of torture he could possibly endure, including a visit to Room 101. Similar to the world of Oceania, in Fahrenheit 451, books are banned from the communities. Guy Montag, just like Winston Smith, ignores his government’s policies through the desire to own novels. Scholars, Jonathan R. Eller and William F. Touponce, say, “In his remarks to Bradbury, Ballantine (a publisher) hints at the fact that Fahrenheit 451 was not so much addressing the question of the exterior right to free expression–though some people in society were not speaking out about important issues because of fear of the authorities–as the value of an inner freedom gained through the important “subject matter” of the book”. Montag, unlike the other people in his community, is not afraid of free expression. He notices what is wrong with society and hatches a plan to change the rules: Starting with books. However, in Bradbury’s story, there are more severe consequences that happen to those who own fiction. Not only are the novels burned, all traces of them are turned to ashes as well; sometimes, including the people who own them. According to scholars,  Eller and Touponce, “in Fahrenheit 451 the mere possession of books is enough to indicate that one is a subversive criminal”. By this, scholars are saying that just owning a book is bad, let alone reading them. In the end of the first part of Fahrenheit 451, Guy´s love for books grew into a collection: “He put his hand back up and took out two books and moved his hand down and dropped the two books on the floor. He kept moving his hand and dropping books, small ones, fairly large ones, yellow, red, green ones” (Bradbury 63). Millie was outraged when she saw the books piled at her feet. She “backed away as if she were suddenly confronted by a pack of mice that come up out of the floor” (Bradbury 63). She was so overwhelmed that she shrieked and ran away. Guy called after her, “Listen. Give me a second, will you? We can’t do anything. We can’t burn these. I want to look at them, at least look at them once” (Bradbury 63).  He picks one up at random, and starts reading it to his wife. Guy reads aloud: “It is computed that eleven thousand persons have at several times suffered death rather than submit to break eggs at the smaller end” (Bradbury 65). This quotation is a reference to a volume called Gulliver’s Travels. To eat eggs, people would break them at the large end; however, when the King’s son cut himself, he ordered that they must be broken at the small end. People were furious, refusing to alter the way they consumed eggs. As a result of not listening, they would be killed. When Mildred heard this passage from the book, she did not understand it and continued to assume books were useless. Contrary to her belief, the excerpt Montag read was significant. It was reflecting on the theme of rebellion and that was exactly what he was doing. Going against the law and collecting volumes went against Captain Beatty’s orders, and his beliefs as a fireman. According to Montag, “Monday burn Millay, Wednesday Whitman, Friday Faulkner, burn ’em to ashes, then burn the ashes. That’s our official slogan” (Bradbury 6). To sum up, George Orwell’s 1984 and Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 are two contrasting storylines that incidentally contain one thing in common: The resentment for books. The authors devised two figures that defied their government’s orders by purposely owning a piece of fiction. Winston used his diary to vent and release his thoughts; committing Thoughtcrime,  while Guy used books as a way to escape from his life; going against what him and his fellow firemen believe in. Winston and Guy have always longed to break free from society’s view of a perfect living structure. Ever since Winston starting working at The Ministry of Truth, it was hard for him to wrap his head around the idea of altering history. He was always curious about the past and if the past he knew was even real. According to scholar, Lawrence Phillips, she believes: It is memory rather than history that presents this challenge and gains its power by its association with the material city. Even while only remembered in fragments and by different people, none of whom seem to know the whole, the power of the rhyme points to the difficulty of controlling and restricting this nexus of memory, language and physical place. While the Party may seek to control language through Newspeak and appropriate physical space by giving it a new history, that control only extends very imperfectly to the Proles where, presumably, memory and tradition still exist. In many respects this is Winston’s tragedy.  Knowing this, it breaks Winston in the sense that he does not know the actual history. He spends his days altering it, following The Party’s orders, although he is desperate to find the truth. Scholars, Eller and Touponce, believe that “Bradbury constantly represents unhappiness in Fahrenheit 451 as an emptiness that needs to be filled”. The main character, Montag feels this emptiness and fills it with a need to rebel. Ever since his encounter with Clarisse, he has longed to be released from his society and what they believe in. Both novels, 1984 and Fahrenheit 451 examine the themes of technology, leading to the revolt of the main characters. Telescreens, monitors and microphones power the way Oceania runs in Orwell’s novel. Around every corner there are cameras glaring down on the citizens; watching their every move. By installing electronic “eyes” all over the city, The Party has power to control everything 24/7. At The Ministry of Truth, in the streets, and even in the comfort of his own home, “It was even conceivable that they watched everybody all the time. But at any rate they could plug in your wire whenever they wanted to” (Orwell 5).  Not only is Big Brother watching the citizens, he controls the way they think. If someone disobeys a Party rule, just by thinking differently, they will get seriously punished. The technology that The Party uses for its citizens helps Winston to rebel because the way they invade everyone’s personal lives angers him into wanting a change. He wishes to be in a spy-free world, having no technology or electronic control.Comparable to 1984, in Fahrenheit 451, electronics help Montag to escape from his old life. Technology is not only used as a way of distraction, but it is also used for control. Bradbury’s society is powered by three key elements of technology: The “Seashell”, television and the Mechanical Hound.  The Seashells go into people’s ears, playing pieces of information constantly. The very tiny radios fit into their ears just as a hearing aid would. Guy’s wife, Mildred, has two of these on for majority of the day: “And in her ears the little Seashells, the thimble radios tamped tight, and an electronic ocean of sound, of music and talk and music and talk coming in, coming in on the shore of her unsleeping mind” (Bradbury 10). The society uses the seashells to keep track of the information people hear and to monitor their thoughts. The technology allows for the government to tell its people things that keep them content, and it prevents them from asking questions or rebelling. The seashells are also used for passing on important news. When Montag escapes at the end of Fahrenheit 451, everyone is notified that he was let out. While running, Montag could hear the buzzing of the seashell in his ear, “…watch for a man running…watch for the running man…watch for a man alone, on foot…watch…” (Bradbury 118). Being able to hear about himself through the thimble radios, Montag is encouraged to run faster and farther away. Another piece of technology that aided Montag was a two way radio that Professor Faber, a mentor, created. It is similar to a walkie-talkie; a device used as a way to communicate with people who are not in the same room. The technology that Faber created is a “small, green metal object, no larger than a 0.22 bullet” (Bradbury 86). It is very tiny so it does not attract the attention of authority figures. The purpose behind this was so that the Professor could communicate with those with the same interest as him: literature. Giving Montag one of the devices eventually saved his life, helped him get away from Beatty and assisted in his rebellion. When Captain Beatty was in Montag’s house, tormenting him, Professor Faber’s voice was in his ear, telling him how to react to the interrogation. Without the constant hum in his ear of  Faber’s advice, he would not have been able to escape from Beatty. Faber “held his hand over his left coat pocket and spoke these words gently…” (Bradbury 71). Montag listened to his orders, ending up with him burning Beatty, along with all of their surroundings.The Mechanical Hound is a machine used by the government to control people. Its main goal is to prevent any crimes from happening, or any laws from being broken. If someone were to go against the rules, the Mechanical Hound would hunt them down and kill them. Made of metal and having eight legs, the machine terrifies Montag every time he runs into it: “He was trembling and his face was green-white”  (Bradbury 23). While Montag is running away from the city, the Mechanical Hound injects him with a needle full of anesthetic. In a way, the Mechanical Hound actually assists Montag with escaping. This event only drove Montag want to get away more than he had before. It lead him to kill the Hound with his flamethrower. Another piece of technology used in Fahrenheit 451 is television. Everybody in Bradbury’s novel has an unhealthy obsession with watching TV. Three quarters of Montag’s house is covered in wall-to-wall television screens.  Millie is so obsessed with the “parlor” that she fails to care when her husband is sick.  She barely acknowledges his health and refuses to get him medicine or water because she is too busy focusing on her own world,in the seashells and television. When Montag asks her to turn the parlor down, she says, “that’s my family” (Bradbury 46). The screens have had that big of an impact on Mildred that she thinks of it as her family, putting her real husband second. Overall, Orwell and Bradbury’s novels both explore the idea of technology, and ultimately how it leads to the protagonists’ escape.  Without a doubt, Orwell and Bradbury wrote two novels with completely different endings, but with similar themes throughout their writing. Winston Smith and Guy Montag were able to achieve ultimate rebellion through determination and the realization that there is more to life than the society they live in. Winston met Julia; who pushed him to go against Big Brother and follow through with his revolt, he purchased a diary; leading him to commit Thoughtcrime, he used technology; an unexpected tool to set him free, and his desire to change his life ultimately helped in succeeding to escape. Montag, similar to Winston, met a female companion; Clarisse-a young woman-who unexpectedly affects his life in a great way, he went against the law; keeping a collection of books hidden in his home, he used electronics; Seashells to help him escape and he always longed to be released from the government he grew up in. George Orwell’s 1984 and Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 contain two protagonists that escape from their reality and ultimately rebel against their society.