Name: Nayon Lee Relative I will Interview: GrandpaCore: B Historical Event I will research: Korean WarD1 – Developing Questions and Planning InquiryD3 – EVALUATING SOURCES AND USING EVIDENCE Question Type QuestionSource TypeWho’s Perspective?CitationNotesBullet points in my own wordsCompellingWas the American Involvement in the Korean War justified?Answered at end of project in final product and ELA essay. Supporting QuestionWhen and why did the Korean war happen?Encyclopedia(Britannica, World Book, Wikipedia)Historical PerspectiveMillett, Allan R. “Korean War.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 17 July 2017, www.britannica.com/event/Korean-War.Korean war 1950-1953After WW2 Japan surrendered and Korea was independentIn North, the leader was Kim Il Sung who was trained as communist in MoscowSoviets favored himNorth wanted to be communist In South they elected president Rhee in 1948 who was US educatedSouth wanted democracykorea split in two as the US and Soviets found out that the country could not unite in political differencesThe south Korean government grouped together 80,000 military people (nearly double of original)Kim Il Sung’s North Korean army size was 100,000 August 1948 ROK (Republic of Korea) became a separate country led by President RheeHowever there was a Partisan War where the North started a guerrilla warThere were 10 attacks and 30,000 Korean citizens and 8,000 South Korean security force members were killedThis caused the South Korean army’s training to sufferAccording to britannica, “American advisers judged that fewer than half of the ROKA’s infantry battalions were even marginally ready for war.”In 1949 Kim Il sung thought it was time to invade South Korea and Stalin approvedJune 25, 1950 North Korea invaded the 38th parallel with help of Soviet UnionThis was the start of Korean war Supporting QuestionWhat were the events that happened during the korean war?Online SourceHistorical Perspective”Korean War Timeline.” Math, www.softschools.com/timelines/korean_war_timeline/36/. May 1945: Korea is splitMarch 12, 1947: Truman says to America that he would fight communismJune 25, 1950: the North Koreans invaded South Korea (the 38th parallel) The south Korean president Rhee executes 100k suspected communistsJune 27,1950: US joins South Korea in Korean WarJuly 4th, 1950: First american defeat in OsanSept 15, 1950: American Inchon landing victoryOct 20, 1950: US troops take over Pyongyang and pushes North Koreans back over the 38th parallelOct, 1950: Chinese join Korean War help North KoreansApril, 1951: MacArthur is fired Sept 13, 1951: Another battle starts (battle of heartbreak ridge)Nov 4, 1951: Eisenhower is elected new US presidentJuly 27,1953: Truce is created between North & South KoreaApril, 1954: Discussions in Geneva between US & China to unite Korea failsSupporting QuestionHow did the US help the South in the War?BookAmerican PerspectiveReece, Richard. The Korean War. ABDO Pub., 2011.They also fought for eight weeks in Osan, Daejeon, South of TaeguLieutenant General Walton H. Walker and General Chung Il-Kwon stopped North Korean tanks and artillery and infantryAmericans and Koreans reduced the North Korean infantry size down from 100,000 to 60,000 people totalUS invades North Koreans at Incheon landingNorth Koreans retreated but 125,000 North Koreans, Soviets and Chinese were capturedHuge success for Americans & South KoreansOct 20, 1950 Americans took over Pyongyang (the capital of North Korea)1951-1953 US troops/ others fight to keep current battle linesSupporting QuestionHow did the US help the South in the War?InterviewRelative’s perspectiveINTERVIEWIn the beginning, Americans joined UN and South Korea to help fight the communists and save the South Korean citizens.Without Americans and UN, the South Korean army would have been too weak to fight the North Koreans.The South Korean army would have failed and given in.This would have resulted in death for many South Korean soldiers and citizens and major destruction to the structures.Americans helped pushed North Koreans back to the 38th parallel and then into Pyongyang. From then, North Koreans couldn’t beat the American, UN and South Korean army because it was 20-30 times stronger. Supporting QuestionWhat are some reasons Truman was wrong to intervene in the war?Primary SourceCounter Argument”The Korean War: Barbarism Unleashed.” Peace History, peacehistory-usfp.org/korean-war/. June 27, 1950 (president sent US military to Korea)Truman made decision even though no declaration of war from CongressUS Congress has ultimate power to approve any war Without congress approval, the president is not allowed to declare warUS went to war with no national congress approvalHowever, UN had already authorized UN needed Americas to join war Howard Zinn who wrote the book “post war America” saysZinn thinks Truman Joining war was political Even though reasons were validZinn says it was a way to “uphold the dictatorial U.S. client regime” of the South Korean president RheeSince the leader of North Korea was a Soviet trained leader, the US didn’t want North Korea’s leader to have power over South KoreaUS also wanted to put military bases in Korea which happened after warSupporting QuestionWhat was the situation in the US before the war?Online SourceAmerican Perspective”Armistice Ends the Korean War.” History.com, A Television Networks, www.history.com/this-day-in-history/armistice-ends-the-korean-war.Tension between Soviet & US from after WW2Cold war going on 1947-1991 throughout Korean War1949 Soviets invading and attacking Europe worried TrumanUS said Korean war was the “first experiment” of the cold warSome say US entered Korean War as a way of fighting the SovietsSince China was already communist, if Korea turned communist then Truman thought Japan would be nextSupporting QuestionWhat was the situation in South Korea from the citizen’s viewpoint during the Korean War?InterviewRelative’s perspectiveINTERVIEWThe North Koreans burned Seoul City to the ground.The whole city were in ruins and many people were injured and even dead.The Seoul city now was completely rebuilt since then. The fire had spread to my Grandpa’s neighborhood and flames were spreading through his house.Grandpa and his family used long sticks to try and stop the flames from spreading furtherTheir home was severely burned and damaged.After that, they gathered their belongings and started fleeing many miles South, away from the war.Many people in Seoul and the Northern parts of South Korea had to flee to get away from the bombs and the battles.Since there were no cars or horses in Korea at that time, they went by foot with children, adults and elderly together as a family.The North Koreans were dropping bombs, there were gunshots and many people were injured.Grandpa was 11 years old when he fled.Some of my grandpa’s relatives such as uncles and aunts got left behind and were captured by the North Koreans.They were sent to North Korean concentration camps and were killed there.This year for the 2018 Olympics, North Korea cannot afford to sign up for many events or travel to the Pyeongchang olympics.Even after everything the North Korean military did, they expect South Korea to pay for all of the olympics fees even after what they did to many civilians, soldiers and the destruction they caused to the country. Supporting QuestionWhat were some consequences of the Korean War for Americans? Encyclopedia SourceAmerican PerspectiveMillett, Allan R. “Korean War.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 17 July 2017, www.britannica.com/event/Korean-War. 54,246 American military killed and missingHowever many more Korean deaths and missing people (1,217,000 for South & 1,006,000 for North)103,284 American military injuredMilitary spending was $30 billion in 1953But equivalent to around $341 billion in 2011The war was not necessary as the results were both Koreas stay seperate.A total of 2.5 mill deaths for war that had only a truce and no peace treaty.Supporting QuestionWhy did the US not get congress approval for joining the Korean War?Online SourceCounter Argumenthttp://listverse.com/2017/05/28/top-10-unauthorized-us-wars/ At first US did not want to join Korean warReason because he was afraid this would cause the Soviet Union and China to join the warHowever when the UN members were called to assist South Korea, Truman decided to join war without congress approvalHe used the UN authorization as the reason for intervening the war.How did the US help the South Koreans in the Korean War?Online SourceAmerican PerspectiveHistorical IMAGEHistory.com, A Television Networks, www.history.com/topics/korean-war/pictures/korean-war/u-s-marine-captures-north-koreans. General Macarthur at Inchon landingCaptured North Korean soldiersHow did the US help the South Koreans in the Korean War?Online SourceAmerican PerspectiveNorth Korean PerspectiveHistorical IMAGETheintercept. “Why Do North Koreans Hate Us? One Reason – They Remember the Korean War.” The Intercept, 3 May 2017, theintercept.com/2017/05/03/why-do-north-koreans-hate-us-one-reason-they-remember-the-korean-war/. October 7th, 1950Americans attack North Korea and capture civilians and Soldiers.How did the US help the South Koreans in the Korean War?Encyclopedia American PerspectiveMillett, Allan R. “Korean War.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 17 July 2017, www.britannica.com/event/Korean-War.United States ArmyDid your compelling question help you to understand your family’s history? Why?Yes. After writing my compelling question, I still had no idea about most things that happened during the Korean war and I wanted to know more. This curiosity made me want to call my Grandfather and ask him about his life during the Korean war. I learned about the challenges he faced, and what living in a war zone was like. This helped him become the determined, responsible and strong person he is today. Did your supporting questions help you to understand your family’s history? Why? I think the supporting questions helped me a lot for getting background information for my interview. The more supporting questions I had, the more I learned about the war. When I was asking my Grandpa questions during the interview, I understood which events he was telling me about and what he was talking about. For example, when he was telling me about when the American’s pushed the North Koreans back over the 38th parallel, I remembered my research and was about to ask more clarifying questions from there.