NAME in order to solve human problems. The term

NAME
:-SANUJ GARG      ID :- 501704098

INTRODUCTION

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Biomimetic  is the examination of  nature, its models, systems, processes, and
elements to emulate or take 
inspiration  from  in  order  to 
solve  human  problems. The term biomimetics introduced by
Schmitt is derived from ” bios”, meaning life (Greek) and  mimesis, meaning to imitate. Biomimetics,
ideally, should be the process of incorporating principles that promote
sustainability much like nature does from cradle  to 
grave’,  from  raw 
material  usage  to 
recyclability,  all  in 
this  physical  world .

Biomimetic
materials are materials developed using inspiration from nature.
This may be useful in the design of composite materials, or material
structures. Natural structures have evolved many inspiring examples that have
been used by man. Common examples are the honeycomb structure of the beehive,
the fibre structure of wood, spider silks, nacre, bone, hedgehog quills.
One
of the early examples of biomimetic was the study of birds to enable human
flight. The
Wright Brothers, who succeeded in flying the first heavier -than-air aircraft
in 1903, derived  inspiration  from 
observations  of  pigeons 
in  flight.

In the class we learned
about biomimetics and biomemetics materials along with the history of material
science and the type of materials evolved in the due course of time like metals
, semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, composites and studied the properties of
these materials and how these materials are utilized for the use of the common
man. We also came to know about the real applications of the things that belong
to nature in our lives. Some of them are:-Lotus
Effect refers to self-cleaning properties that are a result of ultrahydrophobicity as
exhibited by the leaves of lotus flower.  Dirt particles are picked up by
water droplets due to the micro- and nanoscopic architecture on the surface,
which minimizes the droplet’s adhesion to that surface.

Kingfisher
birds have specialized beaks allowing them to dive into
water to hunt while making a minimal splash. This concept was used in
solving the problem of noise that bullet
trains faced on entering the tunnel as the design of engine was made like
beak of kingfisher.

Velcro
was invented in 1948  by the Swiss Electrical Engineer George De Mestral
uses the mechanism of hook-and-loop fastener in its working. After a
hunting trip in the Alps in 1941, George de Mestral took a close look at the
burrs of burdock that stuck to his clothes and his dog’s fur. He examined them
under a microscope, and noted their hundreds of hooks that caught on anything
with a loop such as clothing, animal fur or hair.

Sharkskin
is
covered with so-called dermal denticles. When in motion, these dermal
denticles actually create a low-pressure zone. This leading edge vortex
essentially “pulls” the shark forward and also helps to reduce drag.
Speedo
notoriously incorporated biomimetic sharkskin into a line of swimsuits for the 2008
Olympics. Since then the technology has been banned in Olympic
competition.

Therefore, in the class
we came to know about the technologies and thinking involved behind the things
that we are using in our daily life . These technologies were invented from the
phenomenon occurring in the nature.

SUSTAINABLE
BUILDINGS CREATED THROUGH TERMITE TECHNOLOGY

We generally think of
termites as destroying buildings, not helping design them. But the Eastgate
Building, an office complex in Harare, Zimbabwe, has an internal climate
control system originally inspired by the structure of termite mounds.

Mound-building
macrotermites construct vertical mounds out of soil, saliva, and dung, with
some mounds in Africa measuring up to several meters high. While mound
structure can vary among termite species, the mounds generally resemble
chimneys, with some mounds having large vents while others lack large openings
but have porous walls. Inside these mounds, worker termites can dig a complex
array of tunnels of various sizes. The termites themselves live in nests below
ground in colonies that can contain up to a million individuals. The most
recent published research on termite mounds suggests that they function much
like mammalian lungs and act as accessory organs for gas exchange in the
underground nests. It was previously thought that termite mounds functioned to
continuously maintain the nest’s internal temperature within a narrow range in
the face of extreme outside temperature fluctuations, but research on
mound-building termites are expanding our understanding of mound function.

The strength and weaknesses are there with every research or the task
that we do. During the day, changes in internal nest temperature are less
extreme than changes in outside temperature, but over the course of a year,
nest temperature does vary and closely follows the temperature of the
surrounding soil. The soil has a large thermal capacity, meaning it can absorb
or lose large amounts of heat energy before experiencing any changes in
temperature. In a way, the soil around the termite nest acts as a “buffer”
against daily changes in outside temperature. Researchers are actively studying mounds
to understand precisely how mound structure facilitates gas exchange in the
underground colony. It appears that the main mechanism is through internal air
currents driven by solar heat. As outside temperatures change throughout the
day and the sun strikes different surfaces on the mound, temperature gradients
develop between the mound periphery and center. These temperature gradients
create currents of rising and falling air inside the mound. The direction of
these currents varies as temperature gradients change throughout the day. Wind
energy from unsteady airflows outside the mound may also play a secondary role
in ventilation. The internal airflows llikely promote mixing between air in the
mound and air in the nest, ultimately facilitating gas exchange in the nest. This growing understanding
of macrotermite mound structure and function could inspire new biomimetic
technologies in energy-saving climate control systems.

There are several applications of this technology or
research in human life . Eastgate
Centre in Harare, Zimbabwe is an excellent example of the use of
this technology. It has no conventional air-conditioning or heating, yet stays
regulated year round with dramatically less energy consumption using design
methods inspired by indigenous Zimbabwean masonry and the self-cooling mounds
of African termites. The Eastgate Centre, largely made of
concrete, has a ventilation system which operates in a similar way. Outside air
that is drawn in is either warmed or cooled by the building mass depending on
which is hotter, the building concrete or the air. It is then vented into the
building’s floors and offices before exiting via chimneys at the top. The
complex also consists of two buildings side by side that are separated by an
open space that is covered by glass and open to the local breezes.

CONCLUSION

The
structure of ground macrotermite mounds facilitates gas exchange in the
below-ground nest using internal air currents driven by solar heat. The
buildings build using this technology does not have require any conventional
air conditioning or heating. So it will lead to green environment and will help
in controlling the ever increasing environmental pollution which is a global
concern as the air conditioners lead to the generation of CFCs i.e chloro floro
carbon which is continuously depleting the 
ozone layer and is therefore a great threat to environment.

As we are management students
this subject sensitized us with the technologies that are behind what all we
see in our daily life. This subject also taught us how observing and
researching small things happening in the nature or the natural phenomenon can
lead to the new inventions which ease the life of the human being .  This subject must be a full time, inter
semester and credited course and the rest class can be conducted through video
conferencing and the students should develop a project which should help the
society live life in a sustainable way .

 

 

 

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